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Thread: List of English Techniques

  1. #1
    Sleeping kimmeh's Avatar
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    I have found a list of english techniques that people might like to refer to when analysing texts. There are 20 pages of them, but you dont need to remember them all off by heart, but if you want to get into the top band, i reccomend you use the ones that people seldom hear of
    cheers,
    kimmeh

    List of film techniques! Thanks heaps to Gummy Bear
    Quote Originally Posted by Gummy_bear
    So many people are asking for film techniques, yet they forget about google!

    i searched 'film techniques' and came up with this wonderful website, wikipedia.

    here is the link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_technique

    you can click on each different technique and it will explain each one.

    Please refer to this before you ask for techniques. Only post if you need more info than is provided on this website.

    Allternitively, you can ask your teacher for a list, they have to have one coz they teach them!

    Hope this helps.
    Last edited by Without Wings; 30 Mar 2008 at 11:27 PM. Reason: merge

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    Hey ppl,

    The list which was provided by kimmeh is very useful and can provide great assistance when analysing a text but it does not include all of the techniques that you could use to sophisiticate your writing! I can't really say much because I can't write for shit but I did find the following links really useful:

    http://www.americanrhetoric.com/rhet...esinsound.html
    http://www.virtualsalt.com/rhetoric.htm
    http://www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/williams/figofspe.htm

    Many of the techniques included on these sites overlap but each site provides some different and unconventional techniques! I bet some of them the teachers haven't even heard of! (better be careful though because if they haven't heard of them and they can't be bothered looking them up then they may mark you down for being smarter than them, but if your teacher is anything like mine than they will believe anything you write on the page!!)

    Just one last thing - I found the last link to be the most help as it includes so many techniques! For example, hyperbaton and hypallage!!

    Anyway, I hope these links help and best of luck to all the 06ers!

    Hey guys i have just been testing out the links that I included in my previous post and I have discovered that the first link doesn't work so this is my advice:

    Go to Google.com and type the following into the search bar:
    american rhetoric+rhetorical devices in sound

    I know that it says 'american' but hey the techniques are the same in every western country!! - I think!! and I hope!
    Last edited by Without Wings; 30 Mar 2008 at 11:28 PM. Reason: merge

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    .%$^!@&^#(*!?.%$^?!. ur_inner_child's Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    I've posted this before in techniques and physical journey

    But here we go again, particularly for visual techniques:

    -sustained motif - these are usually used to unify the text. Do they symbolise anything? Eg In The Skin Of A Lion by Michael Ondaatje - light and darkness is a sustained motif, symbolising or creating the meaning of marginalisation, the nature of history (but that can be debated)

    -sustained metaphor - a comparison to something that lasts for an extended period of time. eg Atwood's Journey into the Interior - a sustained metaphor of the difficult landscape to describe the obstacles in her imaginative/inner journey.

    -intertextuality (suggesting relation to another film to the audience so that you can create meaning eg: Moulin Rouge: Satine and Christian are on top of the elephant showing intertextuality to the scene in Titanic (at the front of the boat)to suggest the love is true and perfect, but will end in tragedy.

    -camera shots and angles: high angle shots, low angle shots = depicting the powerful, close up = intimacy possibly? think of the meaning they're trying to portray. This can be different depending on the way in which you view your text.

    -juxtaposition/sequence of events - what scenes are directly placed next to each other to create meaning? eg Rabbit Proof Fence. A shot of the children holding onto the fence, then quickly a shot to the family holding onto the fence. Shows the meaning of a connection?

    -Tone - the characters/the author. Are they biased? Are they patronising? This creates meaning

    Language Register - Is the language formal(of literary)/informal (colloquial or conversational)/ or Slang? What does this do to the audience. Eg: The author Paul Jennings uses colloquial language to engage his young audience and makes his text relatable...

    Didactic - Does it teach something? A moral? ie: The didactic element in the text that "avarice is the root of all evil" is depicted by Hank's close-up shot of his face, showing his sadness after his journey.

    Pun - play on words eg: the title of the text is called "Tyred". This depicts that at the end of the journey, she's actually "tired" but adds a humorous aspect by using the word "tyre" in relation to her road trip. This shows a comical, yet tedious journey...

    Rhyme - many things it can do to create meaning - create tension, speed/slow down time, create an atmosphere. etc

    Alliteration - the occurence in close proximity of two or more words having the same sounds (constanants) - Fishing Furiously with a Furry Grin. This creates (from the example) for the audience the extent of the character's behaviour while fishing.

    Assonance - like alliteration, but with vowel sounds. eg: And all is seared with trade - bleared, smeared with toil.

    Cliche - overused, outworn phrase or short sentence eg: pretty as a picture, clean as a whistle.

    Camera transition - the effects use to change scene - eg: Fades through black - this can depict time passing, or death, or emotive qualities.

    Jargon - specialised words for a specific profession or groups. Eg: Musical jargon: "through-composed", or Internet Jargon: "lol". Jargon will give you smoe indictation to the author's purpose, and the target audience.

    Lighting (for film/visuals) - Usually creates mood through shadows, contrasts and colours. What does the lighting create a sense of? Eg: Green - scary, gruesome, mysterious.

    Paradox - A delibrate statement of what seems to be absurd or contradictory yet it's actually reasonable in the context.
    -----------------------------
    B Mus (1st Class Hons) @ UoS/Conservatorium
    MA in Communication Management @ UTS


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    Cool Re: List of English Techniques

    Hey, thanks to all who generously posted such marvelous links! I donno if this is helpful or not, but if you ever need to FIND quotations to go with the techniques are are getting frustrated with flipping through your text frantically...- you can open an ebook and use Ctrl F to find the phrase.

    Alot of the texts we study are on ebooks on sites like
    http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Main_Page

  5. #5
    Executive Member me121's Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    Glossary of Literary Concepts in English

    ALLITERATION
    is the repetition of consonant sounds in a series of words. If the consonants are the same but the sounds are different they do not alliterate.
    eg. "...the grease that kisses the onions with a hiss."
    from WILLIAM STREET by Kenneth Slessor

    ALLUSION
    is the reference to well-known figures and/or other texts
    eg. "And thrice I heard the Cock crow thinking I knew it's meaning well."
    from COCK CROW by Rosemary Dobson The reference here is to the denial of Jesus after his arrest by one of his disciples.

    APPROPRIATED TEXT
    A text which has been taken from one context and translated The process of translation allows new insights into the original text and emphasises contextual differences between the two.

    ASSONANCE
    is the repetition of vowel sounds. The vowels themselves may be different but the sound has to be the same.
    eg. "If I should die, think this only of me"
    from THE SOLDIER by Rupert Brooke

    CLICHÉ
    is a time-worn phrase used to explain thought or feeling. They are usually images that have lost their power to surprise because of over-use.
    eg. like a bat out of hell or as old as the hills or he's a cold fish.

    CONNOTATION
    is an idea or feeling associated with a word. Some words have richer associations than others eg 'house' may be the building in which you live but 'home' refers to the same object and has associations of warmth, family, security.

    CONTEXT
    The range of personal, social, historical, cultural and workplace conditions in which a text is responded to and composed.

    CONVENTIONS
    Accepted practices or features which help define forms of texts and meaning (see genre). We recognise a genre (type of text) through its conventions eg. Conventions of a Western include such stock characters as hero (white hat), villain (black hat), school marm, bar girl, themes such as tension between the settled life of the town and the freedom of the frontier which resolves as hero rides into the sunset with his best pal, his horse.

    FIGURE OF SPEECH
    (or figurative language) is another term used for imagery and generally refers to such devices as metaphor, simile and personification.

    GENRE
    A category or type of text that can be recognised by specific aspects of its subject matter, form and language eg. Teenflic - usually set in a high school with stock characters such as the cool kids, sport jocks, nerds. There is often a romantic interest but the central problem is usually social or ethical and problems tend to be resolved in the end with some degree of justice.

    ELLIPSIS
    refers to the omitting words from a sentence/paragraph. It is common in transcripts of conversations and is sometimes indicated by ...

    EUPHEMISM
    is an acceptable or mild expression which replaces an unpleasant or hurtful one. For example, some people find it too distressing to speak of death and so soften the effect by such terms as: he has passed on; she has gone to a better place etc.

    IMAGE
    is a term that is has a range of meanings that are used in the study of English. It can refer to
    • a real or ideal resemblance eg. He moulds himself in the image of his father
    • a projection of light or arrangement of pixels on a screen
    • a public impression eg. a politician's image

    IMAGERY
    refers to the mental representations of pictures, sounds, smells textures and tastes that are created through powerful or interesting use of language. Imagery can often refer to figures of speech such as metaphor, simile and personification.

    INTERTEXTUALITY
    is the ways texts make reference to other texts. These references may be
    • explicit such as an allusion
    • implied by the many different ways a composer can draw our attention to other texts (such as parallel situations, sameness of genre, satire, parody etc.)
    • inferred from your own reading. This refers to the way that you draw on your own experience of texts. These references need not have occurred to the composer and can in fact be drawn from texts composed at a later period. For example, our reading of the original Emma by Jane Austen is affected by the fact that we have seen the film Clueless.

    JARGON
    refers to the language or technical terms specific to a particular subject.

    HYPERBOLE
    a deliberate exaggeration for dramatic effect and not intended to be taken literally
    eg. "...the endless cry of death and pain."
    from GALLIPOLI by Mary Gilmore

    LANGUAGE MODES
    Listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing and representing.
    These modes are often integrated and interdependent activities used in responding to and composing texts. It is important to realise that:
    • any combination of the modes may be involved in responding to or composing print, sound, visual or multimedia texts; and
    • the refinement of the skills of any one of the modes develops skills in the others.

    MEDIUM
    The physical form in which the text exists or through which the text is conveyed.

    METAPHOR
    is a comparison where one thing is said to be another eg. The crimson rose of passion (Passion= crimson rose)

    ONOMATOPOEIA
    is the use of words whose sound echoes their sense
    eg. "... the boom of shells"
    from THE REAR- GUARD by Siegfried Sassoon

    OXYMORON
    is a contradiction in two words placed next to each other to heighten the contrast
    eg. "Parting is such sweet sorrow."
    from ROMEO AND JULIET by William Shakespeare
    PERSPECTIVE
    A way of looking at situations, facts and texts and evaluating their meaning or value.

    PARADOX
    is a contradiction which at first seems irreconcilable, but with deeper reflection proves to be a truth. A paradox that is frequent in literature is birth in death which refers to the nature of the life cycle.

    PARODY
    is a conscious imitation of another work usually for a satiric purpose
    eg. "I love a sunburnt country a land of open drains..."

    REPETITION
    of words is used to add emphasis
    eg. "Alone, alone, all, all alone
    Alone on a wide, wide sea"
    from THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER by Samuel Taylor Coleridge

    PERSONIFICATION
    is the figure of speech which gives human qualities to non-human things
    eg. "The Kind old Sun will know"
    from FUTILITY by Wilfred Owen

    SARCASM
    is the use of sharp direct and intentionally cutting words. Literally means flesh tearing
    eg. "He has so many faults and defects it will be hard to replace him in the job."

    SATIRE
    is composition which holds up to ridicule human vice or frailty in a scornful and amusing way

    SIMILE
    is the figure of speech which compares two things using 'like' or 'as'
    eg. "The bomb burst like a flower."
    from HIROSHIMA by Angela M. Clifton

    TONE
    is the writer's attitude to his or her subject matter or readers. You can often decide the tone by imagining the tone of voice a writer might be using if speaking the text.

    Source: http://www.englishteacher.com.au/glossary.php

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    Exalted Member bored of sc's Avatar
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    Post English Texts, Devices, Elements and Techniques

    Feel free to post up too and make the list more comprehensive!

    Starting it off -

    metaphor
    simile
    personification
    allusion
    multi-sensory imagery
    imagery
    first person narration
    second person narration
    third person narration
    tautology
    punctuation
    repetition
    characterisation
    music (and its various techniques) - pitch, tone colour, dynamics, expressive techniques, duration, structure, texture
    tone
    dialogue
    monologue
    symbolism
    motif
    rhetorical question
    question
    command
    statement
    exclaimation
    focal point
    background
    foreground
    camera shot sizes
    camera angles
    clothing
    setting (??)
    jargon
    colloquiallism
    slang
    analogy
    pastiche (where elements of various other texts and different mediums are integrated into one)
    primary source
    secondary source
    interview
    humour
    voice over
    animation
    cartoon imaging
    satire
    video-imaging
    irony
    rhyming couplet
    special effects
    delayed entrance
    adjectives
    verbs
    nouns
    pronouns
    capitalisation
    soliloquy
    photograph
    size
    layout
    pace
    rhythm
    rhyme
    antithesis
    juxtaposition
    hyperbole
    direct speech
    accumulative detail
    syntax - structure and types of sentences
    conjunctions
    persuasive language
    emotive lang.
    didactic lang.
    propaganda
    antecdote
    homophone
    homonym
    asotrophe
    cliche
    onomatopoeia
    adverbs
    prepositions
    synonyms
    polar opposites
    tragic flaw
    tradegy
    comedy
    history
    paradox
    oxymoron
    iambic pentameter
    iambic tetrameter
    foreshadowing
    figurative lang.
    conflict
    climax
    blank verse
    anthropomorphism
    allegory
    character
    theme
    context
    composer
    responder
    exemplify
    represent
    implies
    explicit
    connotative
    poem
    exposition
    discussion
    visual texts
    description
    facial expressions
    body language
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_literary_terms
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glossary_of_poetry_terms
    Last edited by bored of sc; 17 Aug 2008 at 12:38 PM.

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    Retired Aerath's Avatar
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    Re: English Texts, Devices, Elements and Techniques

    These aren't mine, I got them from somewhere - can't remember. Those are all the ones I've ever heard of + others which I haven't heard of.

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    Re: List of English Techniques

    ooo that helps as well DOMINO affect!

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    Elite Member eriito's Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    Thanks
    HSC '09
    Mathematics Extension 2 | English Advanced | Physics | Chemistry
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    Soccer is life Andy09's Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    Other than engaging the responder more what other effects does first person narration generate?

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    Exalted Member bored of sc's Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    Quote Originally Posted by Andy09
    Other than engaging the responder more what other effects does first person narration generate?
    First person narration is more intimate and heart-felt. It makes it easier for the responder to empathise with and relate to the composer.

    It personalises and humanises the text, making it more accessible and realistic.

  12. #12
    et tu kaz1's Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    I heard of one called accumulation.
    cracker

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    Re: List of English Techniques

    double entendre
    - a word or phrase in a sentence that has a double meaning, the first, most noticeable being the obvious one and the second often being rude or risque
    eg
    "The Most Dangerous Game" - game can = game as in fun/play, or = game as in deer, sheep, the hunted animals etc.

    this one is so good the computer puts a red line under it haha.
    3 Unit Mathematics
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    Cadet LynFay's Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    Could someone plz put up the techniques in some kind of order??
    I've got to listen to a tape (outdated, i know) in classand then do short answers on it. What techniques do you look for in something you can't read??

    Besides tone and silence and stuff...
    Advanced English 2U
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    Cadet aaron22's Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    Can someone tell me why "The Lion King" is such a crappy related text?

    and because the related text this year is on belonging, is using bible stories applicable like joseph?

  16. #16
    New Member juhi-'s Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    Quote Originally Posted by aaron22 View Post
    Can someone tell me why "The Lion King" is such a crappy related text?

    and because the related text this year is on belonging, is using bible stories applicable like joseph?
    my teacher said that it was okaii to do stories from bible so i think that will be fine

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    Re: List of English Techniques

    Quote Originally Posted by juhi- View Post
    my teacher said that it was okaii to do stories from bible so i think that will be fine
    Be careful, don't call them stories. I'm sure we know that they're called parables, but remember, when writing, aim for sophistication, fluency & elegance. Big words DO help. Provided you use them properly.

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    New Member Antiel's Avatar
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    Re: List of English Techniques

    Can somebody please give me a definition of Contrast as a visual technique when analysing texts?

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    Exclamation Re: List of English Techniques

    Quote Originally Posted by _sakE View Post
    Mind you, but 'The Lion Kong' is seen to be a Kids movie... so it probably isn't the best choice for a related text for someone studying at a senior high school level. My english teacher at the moment said something of the sort about what I just said.
    Are you retarded, 'The Lion King' depicts belonging almost perfectly. Whether it be belonging to a group of animals, belonging to the circle of life, the Pride Lands, possibly even not belonging as Scar isn't supposed to belong within the lands, or as Scar banishes Simba..

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