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Thread: Higher Level Integration Marathon & Questions

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    Ancient Orator leehuan's Avatar
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    Higher Level Integration Marathon & Questions

    Higher Level Integration Marathon & Questions
    This is a marathon thread for integration (mainly numerical or computation of integrals including manipulation of integrals).

    Please aim to pitch your questions for first-year/second-year university level maths, although not necessary. Excelling & gifted/talented secondary school students are also invited to contribute.

    Note 1: Please do not post HIGH SCHOOL integration (ext 1 or ext 2) related questions. Use the respective Maths Ext 1 & Maths Ext 2 forums instead.
    Note 2: Questions involving theorems such as the FTC are better suited to the Calculus & Analysis marathon not this one.

    (mod edit 7/6/17 by dan964)

    ===============================


    This thread is for people to bombard with integrals that ARE allowed to stretch beyond the MX2 syllabus and into the world of real maths. And for me to spectate and join in later in the year.

    I invite everyone to participate.

    I will kick off with a VERY cliche question.

    Last edited by dan964; 7 Jun 2017 at 4:44 PM.

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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by leehuan View Post
    This thread is for people to bombard with integrals that ARE allowed to stretch beyond the MX2 syllabus and into the world of real maths. And for me to spectate and join in later in the year.

    I invite everyone to participate.

    I will kick off with a VERY cliche question.



























    BenHowe likes this.

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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Alternatively, use polar coordinates (the 'standard' approach I see that omegadot was alluding to).

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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon




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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    ln(a + 1)

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    Supreme Member seanieg89's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by InteGrand View Post
    ln(a + 1)
    Which follows from differentiating under the integral (Feynman's favourite integration trick):

    Last edited by seanieg89; 8 Jan 2016 at 3:54 PM.

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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by seanieg89 View Post
    Which follows from differentiating under the integral (Feynmann's favourite integration trick):


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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by InteGrand View Post
    Yep .

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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon




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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    One can read about Feynman's commentary on differentiating under the integral in these links:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differ...opular_culture

    http://www.math.uconn.edu/~kconrad/b...ffunderint.pdf

    Apparently this trick wasn't taught too much back then haha.

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    Supreme Member seanieg89's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by InteGrand View Post
    Apparently this trick wasn't taught too much back then haha.
    Still isn't taught too much really, but it's pretty useful!

    That's why I wrote that question like last month in the undergrad marathon about differentiating things of the form w.r.t. t, as that is just a strengthened form of the differentiation under the integral trick, where domains are also allowed to vary.

    In fact there is also such a trick when the integral is instead over a time varying domain in R^n, and it is quite useful too.

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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    One more before I wait for the ones already mentioned to be answered:

    5.

    i) Find an expression for the volume of an n-dimensional ball of radius r. (Hint: This is like computing volumes of 3-d solids in MX2 by slices, but the cross sections of n-balls are (n-1)-balls.)

    ii) Let be the probability that a randomly selected* point in the unit n-ball has distance less than from the centre. Show that as , regardless of what is.

    The perhaps surprising moral: Almost all of the mass of a high dimensional ball is concentrated near the boundary of this ball!

    *Randomly w.r.t n-dimensional volume.
    Last edited by seanieg89; 8 Jan 2016 at 6:08 PM.

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    -insert title here- Paradoxica's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by seanieg89 View Post




    Last edited by Paradoxica; 8 Jan 2016 at 7:03 PM.
    If I am a conic section, then my e = ∞

    Just so we don't have this discussion in the future, my definition of the natural numbers includes 0.

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    Loquacious One Drsoccerball's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    I feel like this thread should of been made about 9 months later when we (2015'ers) know what were doing.

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    -insert title here- Paradoxica's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    I'll post my own problem...

    If I am a conic section, then my e = ∞

    Just so we don't have this discussion in the future, my definition of the natural numbers includes 0.

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    Ancient Orator leehuan's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by Drsoccerball View Post
    I feel like this thread should of been made about 9 months later when we (2015'ers) know what were doing.
    Who cares, I'm pretty sure some other people will take advantage of this thread.
    Last edited by leehuan; 8 Jan 2016 at 8:05 PM.

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    Supreme Member seanieg89's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by Paradoxica View Post


    For 3, the swapping of order of integration is fine can be justified by your choice of the many variants of Fubini's/Tonelli's theorem. You don't need an especially powerful one because the function is smooth and absolutely integrable.

    For 4, I think people should still attempt it / try other methods, as it is much less clear why "letting a=-i" should be valid. Letting a=-1 would give us something nonsensical for example. Definitely need to say something more to justify the formula being the same as that of the Gaussian integral (and why that particular choice of square root and not the other).

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    Supreme Member seanieg89's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by Paradoxica View Post
    I'll post my own problem...



    (The interchange of summation and integration being justified by the monotone convergence theorem, for example.)

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    -insert title here- Paradoxica's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by seanieg89 View Post
    For 3, the swapping of order of integration is fine can be justified by your choice of the many variants of Fubini's/Tonelli's theorem. You don't need an especially powerful one because the function is smooth and absolutely integrable.

    For 4, I think people should still attempt it / try other methods, as it is much less clear why "letting a=-i" should be valid. Letting a=-1 would give us something nonsensical for example. Definitely need to say something more to justify the formula being the same as that of the Gaussian integral (and why that particular choice of square root and not the other).
    I think the solution had something to do with selecting the right branch of the square root function in the complex plane, which justifies the analytical continuation for Re(a)>0, and then taking the limit as a tends towards -i.
    If I am a conic section, then my e = ∞

    Just so we don't have this discussion in the future, my definition of the natural numbers includes 0.

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    -insert title here- Paradoxica's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Here's a very deceptive integral which appears simple.

    kawaiipotato likes this.
    If I am a conic section, then my e = ∞

    Just so we don't have this discussion in the future, my definition of the natural numbers includes 0.

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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Here's another nice question.


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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by seanieg89 View Post
    For 4, I think people should still attempt it / try other methods, as it is much less clear why "letting a=-i" should be valid. Letting a=-1 would give us something nonsensical for example. Definitely need to say something more to justify the formula being the same as that of the Gaussian integral (and why that particular choice of square root and not the other).

























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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by Paradoxica View Post
    Here's a very deceptive integral which appears simple.


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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by omegadot View Post


    Your nose does not deceive you.
    If I am a conic section, then my e = ∞

    Just so we don't have this discussion in the future, my definition of the natural numbers includes 0.

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    Supreme Member seanieg89's Avatar
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    Re: Extracurricular Integration Marathon

    Quote Originally Posted by omegadot View Post
























    Nice , it's a bit lengthier than you can do it using complex analysis but I like the fact that a high school student could understand it.

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