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Thread: Notes - Popular Culture (Animation and Teen Movies) / Work and Leisure (Australia)

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    Popular Culture: Animation notes

    Fundamental Concepts

    Persons
    Every person is a unique individual, but each develops in a social setting in which they are influenced by, and interact with, other persons. The process of communication is one of these fundamental interactions.

    Society
    Society is made up of people, groups, networks, institutions, organisations and systems. These aspects of society may include local, national and international patterns of relationships. People belong to informal and formal groups, and within and between these groups there are patterns of interactions.

    Culture
    Culture refers to the knowledge, ways of thinking, feeling and behaving that give each society its coherence and its distinctive way of life. Culture is demonstrated by the beliefs, customs, values, laws, arts, technology and artefacts people generate and use as they interpret meaning from their world and solve present and future problems.

    Environment
    Every society is located in a particular physical setting. The attitudes and values people have in regard to their environment greatly affect interactions between the person, society, culture, and environment. Environments present societies with both opportunities and restraints.

    Time
    Every person, society and environment is located in time and is changing through time. Our perceptions of time as past, present and future are also important for social enquiry and action. These perceptions draw on past events that influence our present. They need not, however, determine our future. We can perceive a range of possible futures that can assist our decision-making.

    Popular Culture
    A shared set of practices and beliefs that have attained global acceptance and which can be characterized by, being associated with commercial products, developing from local, national to global acceptance, allowing consumers to have widespread access and constantly changing and evolving.





    Key Concepts

    Access - Who has access to Popular Culture, and how they have access. Without access there can be no Popular Culture.

    Consumption - To purchase or otherwise acquire the products of a Popular Culture.

    Influence -The effect the Popular Culture has on you and the forces that impact upon the Popular Culture.

    Ideology - Coherent set of ideas that binds together a set of beliefs

    Globalisation - The way the Popular Culture can be basically the same in many parts of the world, that very few companies may control Popular Culture, how it has global appeal.

    Mythology - Development of ideas and beliefs surrounding Popular Culture. Traditional mythology may have rooted from the truth, but developed commercial exploitation.

    Socialisation - The way we learn what society demands from us. What role this Popular Culture plays in our socialisation and if it has changed us.

    Institutional power - The power that is inherent and accepted part of society. It is widely recognized as institution or group. Institutions possess power over Popular Culture.

    Identity - Forces that construct a sense of uniqueness in a person, Popular Culture plays a crucial role in developing a persons identity.

    Conflict - Do people accept this Popular Culture, or do various groups within society conflicting over this Popular Culture.

    Continuity - elements in society and culture that have remained the same. In Popular Culture there are areas that have stayed the same amid change.

    Media - Mass communication that reaches a large number or people, radio, TV, film. Mass media is a key force in promoting the development of Popular Culture.

    Change - Conceptual understanding that something is different from the was it was before. In Popular Culture things change.

    Self - The way you are, think and react in different culture. It is closely linked to personals and socialisation in Popular Culture.

    The Nature of Popular Culture

    Identifying the distinguishing characteristics of Popular Culture

    1) Being associated with commercial products
    2) Developing from a local to a national to a global level
    3) Allowing consumers to have widespread access to it
    4) Constantly changing and evolving


    1) Popular culture is associated with commercial products
    The sales of paraphernalia, collectable items is based on specific animated films or characters e.g Finding Nemo, South Park, Rugrats. These commercial products are mass manufactured and technology enables the production to be efficient distribution throughout the world.

    2) It develops from a local to a national to a global level
    The creation of a form of popular culture usually starts at a local level then is promoted globally e.g. Sailormoon was originally a cartoon that began in Tokyo and was dubbed in English and sold globally. Given communication networks today, animation can move quickly from a local to a global level. Mass production and technology advances allow for this development. Consumers of popular culture are consuming less of their local culture and more global culture.

    3) Allows consumers to have widespread access to it
    Animated films are readily available through many distribution channels, such as TV and retailers. There is a variety of ways to access animation through, watching TV, purchasing or hiring a video, purchasing or hiring a computer game.

    4) Popular Culture is constantly changing and evolving
    Popular culture changes according to the time and environmental differences. Also changes in values, beliefs, technology will lead to change and evolution of the form of popular culture, e.g stretches and storylines of first animated film steamboat willy, to computer generated graphics of Monsters Inc.

    Examining their own interaction with Popular Culture

    Popular culture today is;










    Approaches to popular Culture

    The view that popular culture is a mass culture and a dichotomy between low/high culture. High culture is more serious, enduring for many generations, appealing to a cultural elite. Traditionally examples of High culture would be classical music.

    Qualitative dimensions of popular culture give it a measurement, via sales records, ratings, figures. It determines how popular it is. Mass culture is the part of popular culture which is commercial, mass produced, e.g. paraphernalia. Consumers don't all passively accept all popular cultures, some marketing campaigns fail, or we resist them.

    A Focus Study Animation
    The creation of Popular Culture

    Animation is a form of popular culture, as is available in a variety of texts and easily accessible. It appeals to a variety of emotions. Disney produces many films which reach audiences through emotions, e.g The Lion King. Most animated texts can be viewed in video, played as a game, or read as a comic strip. Animation is viewed in a safe environment. Going to a cinema gives us a sense of belonging to a larger group. Advertising encourages people to interact with animated pieces, playing the game. Animation often reflects common aspects of today's society through, language, music, various institutions. Animation is used to teach a variety of values and social norms.

    Animation or animate is to give life to a still drawing or photograph. At the beginning of the 20th century, technological advances enabled us to have cinema's and television. With these came animation of characters and storylines. Walt Disney was the first animater to develop a cartoon audiences watched on the big screen, known as Mickey Mouse.

    Animation used to very complex and time consuming. Thousand of separate pictures were drawn , painted onto cells then put into film. Next computer enabled images to be transferred and alter. Surround sound gave larger audiences the illusion they were part of the film. Stop motion animation using puppets and models created King Kong 1933. Animatronics, actors in rubber latex suits were controlled by technicians, examples of these were Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and Jurassic Park. Video games were very basic with arcade games such as pacman, next the were put onto CDs with highly advanced graphics like Final fantasy rather than floppy disc.

    Outline its development locally, nationally and globally
    Once animation is created, its level of accessibility is increased, and local audiences, to national to global can view it. Technology has aided the speed of transmission. Methods of transmitting animated films and cartoons include; movie theatres, associated CD, Television, Cable television, Associated computer games, Video hiring and purchasing, Internet sites have up to date information and advertising billboards.


    An example of an animation is Ultraman, which was a popular TV series in Japan, it was produced ion 1987 then reproduced in English in 1990 to an American audience, the movie could also be bought in Australia. It was popular because it was entertaining and appeals to different age groups. The future of Ultraman is that it is to be exported to foreign countries such as china and to become globally popular. There would be potential to sell the products in other countries.

    The role of mythology in the creation and perpetuation of Popular Culture

    Myth is a traditional story usually concerning a superhuman, or event which attempts to explain a natural phenomena.

    Mythology is a body of myths or all myths viewed collectively. Examples of mythology in Animation are, Hercules, The Little Mermaid and Aladdin. Hercules was based on Greek mythology where he had super strength and the moral was that you don't have to be strong to be a hero. The Little Mermaid is mythology of a half human/fish coming to the human world, the moral was to "follow your heart". Aladdin was an Arabian folk story with flying carpets, its moral was "be yourself".

    Myths are kept alive through, storytelling, picture books, media, movies and cartoons, paraphernalia, festival and theatre.

    The consumption of Popular Culture

    Identify the consumers of Popular Culture
    Consumers are the people who buy animation
    Primary consumers are the target market, such as children
    Secondary consumers are other viewers, adults escorting the children.
    Children rely on parents, who have a disposable income to allow them access to animation. An example of an, Animation, which explains the difference, is Shrek. The primary consumers are children and the secondary is parents, siblings, and babysitters. However, this film is suitable for all ages.

    Processes involved in consumption and the nature of the product
    Animation is consumed via movie theatres, associated paraphernalia, television, computer games, and the Internet. Through modern technology (computers and Internet), animation has gone to a global level because it is now easily accessible and so is consumed faster.

    Shrek is an animation which was consumed so rapidly locally (taking $6,800) it was later produced nationally and took over 400 million. It is now being reproduced into an Imax version.





    Consider aspects of continuity and change in consumption
    The consumption of Popular Culture also depends on different aspects of continuity and change. Within Animation, the parts that have remained constant are; the associated commercial products, animation developing locally then becoming global, consumers having widespread access to it, the use of Myths to base story lines, the target market being children and gender roles e.g. Princesses and Heroes. While the features that have changed include; the technology used in production (more computer use), specialised production companies (DreamWorks and Pixar), Animation with adult target markets e.g. South Park, increase in accessibility, paraphernalia and duration time. There is also greater cross-cultural viewing e.g. Japanese cartoons Cowboy Bebop translated into English. Consumption has helped develop animation--more people can access globally due to changes in technology.

    In the case of Shrek, the rapid changes in technology during the production of Shrek enabled DreamWorks to speed up the process of making their new animation Tusker. Shrek has also developed from a storybook, produced into a movie then released nation and its consumption comes from paraphernalia. The accessibility produced by the movies expansion to global has meant the audience has become wider. In addition, with the Internet, consumers have further access to this form of Popular Culture.

    Examine the role of the media in consumption and interaction
    Media is another factor that contributes to the consumption of Animation. The main role of media in this Popular Culture is advertising the film by; reviews, magazines, interviews, film trailers, TV, radio, and the Internet. What we read in reviews, or see on television affects our judgement and ultimately helps us decide whether to consume a popular culture or not. Without media, we would not know about certain Popular Culture because we would have no access to them. Paraphernalia is a way a telling the target market a product is being sold. Media also reinforces our beliefs and values about a particular society.

    The main goal of media producers and companies is to produce an animation that is inevitably profitable, and their role in advertising influences us to consume their product. Media can also identify classic animations such as Snow White. Shrek is an animation that was so successfully produced, promoted, and advertised that they are developing a sequel. The clever idea to use popular actors to dub the voices of these characters also helped in the successful of this animation. Media attributes to the consumption and helps an, animation spread to global levels. Therefore, it has an important role in developing animation from local to national to global.

    Identify the associated paraphernalia
    Paraphernalia (associated toys, games, T-shirts) also aids the consumption of animation and gives more access/attention to the film. Paraphernalia reinforces the target markets enjoyment of the animation, also when the children see paraphernalia they want to see the film. All of this increases consumption.



    Consider the roles of heroes and mythology
    The use of heroes and mythology in animated movies convey a message to the young audience about moral issues. The hero is admired for his good deeds, and thus becomes a role model for the target audience. For adults, they provide a link with childhood and allow global appeal, as they are based on things we know from our past.

    Mythology is usually intermingled into the story line and educates about ethics and moral e.g. Good versus Evil. Myths are usually globally known, so when they are adapted into animations, they are very successful. Myths are a form of Popular Culture that encourages consumption, and through their heros appeal to the consumers and their associated paraphernalia. Within Shrek, there are moral issues about body image, and how people should not be judged by their appearance.

    Consider the role of technology in the interactive process
    Popular Cultures are greatly influenced by technology, business, marketing and advertising. The role of technology in consumption and business of a popular culture happens for local technology that is used to become global. The creators and produces of Animation use computer programs and software to produce the film locally. The retailers will then promote it with, radio/TV advertisements and computerised posters. Finally, the consumer accesses it by DVDs, computers, and the Internet. Through technology, Animation has been able to become a Popular Culture because it has been made accessible to a greater target market. Without technology, the product would not appeal to the consumers.

    Examine the influence of business, marketing and/or advertising
    Popular Culture characteristics take the form of commercial packages (Animation is an example) The consumption of this business is aimed to be profitable. In our case Animation, achieved through clever marketing and use of advanced technology whether it is to product, retail, or consumer, locally to globally. The broader the sphere, the more consumers and more profitable the Popular Culture is. Advertising also sustains a Popular Culture. Media is a major influence as it is an institution controlled by business.

    Stars and icons are created by mass media, and producers of popular culture identify what people want and make it into a product. Shrek is an animation that reached 200 million after being released in 2001 and in 2003 it received more than 400 million. Shrek was so profitable that a sequel will be produced to further show this animation is a successful popular culture. Movies like Shrek must be marketed globally to get a profit. Also Shrek appeals to audiences all over the world.

    Basically the process of consuming a popular culture, in our case animation has helped it develop from a local to national to global level because today, for something to be popular, it needs global appeal. Animation is an example of popular culture that does have global appeals and access. Without access, a popular culture can not be consumed and therefore is not profitable.



    The control of Popular Culture

    Identify the stakeholders in the control of Popular Culture, including: media, groups, marketers, governments, family, peers
    A stakeholder is someone who has vested interest in a business e.g. The producers of animation, marketers/media, families, peers and government.

    THE PRODUCERS OF ANIMATION
    Media producers and film companies will only produce or invest money into something if they believe it is profitable. Mass media plays a major role in the production. The "guaranteed ingredients" to produce and animation are;
     myth
     well known voice actors
     song writer with catchy tune

    MARKETER/MEDIA
    Marketers identify the target market. Once this is identified, the selling of the animation begins. techniques used by Marketer is associated products to help obtain profit. To achieve profit,
     Market release date in cinema
     promotion of animation to consumer via advertising, interviews
     manufacture associated paraphernalia
    These decisions act as a control on consumption of these products.

    GOVERNMENT
    The greatest control the government has is censorship, placing ratings on animated films or cartoons, they are also responsible for monitoring the distribution of the films and paraphernalia, packaging for the appropriate age.

    FAMILIES
    Parents allow or refuse their children to watch particular animated films or purchase paraphernalia, computer games. Their choice can be influenced by their values, beliefs, disposable income and reading reviews.

    PEERS
    Peer groups can control or influence an individual. Young children see an animation and discuss it with friends. It can cause crazed and spur other children into pressuring their parents to see it and purchase paraphernalia. The child often says "everyone else has it". Adolescents have huge impact on each other to which form of popular culture is acceptable. For younger males it may be Simpson, while older males South Park


    Consider the ownership of Popular Culture

    Consumers, they own the experience and paraphernalia they purchase. This contributes to the success of an animation.

    Government, ownership through control of censorship. Income made from businesses associated with animation.

    Actors and songwriter, talent is contracted out between the actor and production studio therefore the actor legally hands over ownership for that animation. Keith Scott voiced Bullwinkle

    Media, through promotion, such as advertising e.g fox studios owned by Murdoch family

    Producers, Animation dominated by global companies that work in collaboration with smaller companies, dines provides finances for Pixar. Companies in the industry have ownership of actual production, e.g. DreamWorks and Pixar. Also distribution rights if animation and paraphernalia.

    Examine the issue of access
    Access, the act or right of coming to something or being admitted into a place (cinema) or thing (fan club)

    Class, People of higher socioeconomic status have higher disposable income to consume animated products. Therefore they have greater access. people with high socioeconomic status have more opportunity in receiving invitations to special events and premiers.

    Age, Certain age restrictions exist, enforced through censorship codes e.g. 5 year olds can't see South Park the movie.

    Location, Venues can be limited or difficult to get to (cinemas). Only selected retail outlets stock paraphernalia.

    Gender, styles of animation are promoted to specific genders and viewing these animations could put negative peer pressure on the consumer.

    Ethnicity, nationality groups have stricter rules concerning what children watch or play with.

    Sexuality could restrict your access to animation, as homosexual couples in animation wouldn't appeal to a child target market.

    Consider the role of official and unofficial censorship

    Censorship refers to control of communication. It restricts certain consumers from accessing a text due to age restrictions. This is away of controlling values, beliefs and morals a person is exposed to.

    The government controls official censorship through classifications in film such as G,PG,M,MA,R. Film censorship board gives anything a PG or over additional information e.g. low level violence, course language, sexual themes. Forms of censorship is time slot, such as South Park at 9.30 and the government also bans films such as Ken Park. Or doesn't distribute Japanese animations that have pornography content.

    Unofficial censorship occurs when rules are set by other institutions/groups. These can be families who allow 10-12 year olds to play computer games. Religious groups who protest against certain elements depicted in animation such as levels of violence.

    Control of Popular Culture to issues of power and authority

    Family, grandparents and parents have authority over what their children watch. While siblings have power to influence children's inclination to watch certain animations.

    Peers, peer groups have power to pressure and influence each other to consumer an animation and paraphernalia.

    Government, censorship rules are authority and collecting taxes and distributing funds.

    Media, Has the power to manipulate audiences and reviewers. Authority is a type of marketing and release dates.

    Producers, have the power to decide how the story and characters will be interpreted.

    Scripts, actors, songwriters, have power to influence the story and characters interpretation, as they are role models.

    Different perceptions of Popular Culture

    Identify resistance to Popular Culture and introduce examples

    Perceptions, are our comprehensions (understanding) of a situation. They are a result of our selective judgement about a person/situation and the culture or the people involved. Our perceptions relate to our micro and macro worlds, our upbringing, past experiences, learning and knowledge. It is linked to our socialisation, age and gender. Thus our perceptions vary from individual.

    Some people believe that popular culture texts create social dislocation. Such reasons are based on personal values, religious beliefs and levels of violence depicted. There are many different forms of resistance;
     Legislation in the form of censorship, funding research
     Protests through letter writing, radio, demonstrations outside cinemas
     Lobby groups gathering support
     Pressure groups forms of influence the government to alter polices
     Fringe groups are outside mainstream society, they resist mass commercialism and opt for alternatives.
     Social movements such as anti capitalist and feminist.

    Specific examples include
     Eminem CD's can't be sold to children 15 and under. Feminist groups outraged at Eminem tour, as he is sexist in his song lyrics.
     ET rating changed from, G to PG because of violence
     Lion King reaction from feminist groups
     Shrek, people didn't believe it was appropriate for farting.

    Consider the acceptance and rejection of Popular Culture

    Acceptance
    As a collective, people have perceptions of whether animation is popular or not. Masses in society either accept animation as a form of popular culture. Box office figures support this with millions viewing The Lion King and other animations. The government accepts animation as an export earner and industry that employs skilled Australians. Workers within the industry accept animation as a form of viable employment. retailers accept animation as it has commercial products, easily consumable and changing. It ensures profit and employment within retail stores.




    Rejection
    Particular animations may be rejected because of explicit nature of violence, sexual images, subject matter, poor quality. Some groups in society rejects some forms of animation such as computer games because of the cost involves e.g. $100 for Playstation games. Individuals reject animated films and associated paraphernalia, as they may want to protest against commercial. Many people don't want to be told what they should see or buy. Example Pokemon crazes have spurred huge amounts of paraphernalia. Rejection forms are, writing letters, word of mouth, petitions and legislation. Example of Animation rejection is the Tongue ad for Tooheys extra dry, which offended viewers and cause nausea it had a "gross our factor"

    Culture Shock
    Between the generation gap, and also different ethnicity. Many old people may look upon course language and violence in animation today and find it different from other things they have seen. They would not understand why explicit content is included. Therefore they would try to control it by preventing access, using censorship and licensing. Their perceptions are negative. Schools and churches also perceive popular culture differently. Due top large numbers of students, they tend to socialize their teachers and parents about popular culture.

    Identify tensions between producers, owners and participants

    PRODUCERS VERSUS OWNERS
    Owners or stakeholder can create tension in disposal of money. Success of product and process. Producer is under owners authority.

    PRODUCERS VERSUS PARTICIPANTS
    Conflict of interest and objections e.g. Sting and the Emperors New Groove. Conflict in dialog and direction e.g. the interpretation of the characters gags. Conflict between writer and the storyline of the animation. Conflict between animators, about characters looks. Conflict between marketer and producing, different target markets. Conflict between voice actor and producers e.g. Mike Myers in Shrek, Canadian accent then a Scottish accent.

    OWNER VERSUS PARTICIPANTS
    Participants are both those involved in the animation and the consumer. Participants can refuse to participate till their way is accepted. Actors might not wish to participate is certain scenes, naked. Consumer's ethic, values may lead to tension. Tension over money e.g Actors want pay rise. Refusal of animation at Cinema.






    The contribution of Popular Culture to social change

    Positive and negative aspects of Popular Culture become a part of society
    Continuity refers to aspects, which remain the same or continue to surface over time. Aspects Animation demonstrations are;
     Themes and morals (good versus bad, love and family)
     Large companies dominating the production of animation (Walt Disney)
     Styles of Animation and characters (bugs bunny)

    Change refers to altering or evolving aspects over time. Aspects of animation that demonstrate change are;
     Specialised companies entering the industry (Pixar)
     Access has widen due to technology
     Consumption of animation has increased (shift to adolescent and young adult market)
     Increase in marketing of paraphernalia
     Wider variety of animated texts (interactive computer games)

    Negative Aspects of Animation
    Young children and teens spend more time indoors watching animation, rather than exercising. Introduction of X-rated animation is unacceptable. Young audiences can access adult animation easily. Violent animation leads to the idea that violence is acceptable. False sense of reality with happy endings.

    Positive Aspects of Animation
    It is a good form of entertainment for teen and young kids. An increase in jobs available in the animation industry. Social continuity of myths and legend from the past. technology makes it more realistic. Widely accessible and cheap. Illustrated good morals and values for children. Good family entertainment, promotes imagination and shows humans overcoming difficulties.

    Popular Culture may have contributed to social change
    Social change is forces within or outside society that act to modify one of more of these aspects; existing social structures (education), social institutions (work) and social behavior (leisure, morals). Popular culture makes it possible for social change to occur, making us question our current beliefs. Social change in the future can be increased through access via the internet. Consumer today have a different relationship with the producers, markets and distributor or animations.

    Popular Culture can cause conflict, as individuals perceive texts in a positive or negative light. An example is South Park, which some groups see as totally offence, bad language bad violence ( a negative aspect). Other see it as acceptable and positive as at the end of each story morals are questioned about gub lobbies, homosexuality, and authority structures.

    The Future

    Evaluating continuity and change in relation to the Popular Culture
    Continuity refers to aspects, which remain the same or continue to surface over time. Aspects Animation demonstrations are;
     Themes and morals (good versus bad, love and family)
     Large companies dominating the production of animation (Walt Disney)
     Styles of Animation and characters (bugs bunny)

    Change refers to altering or evolving aspects over time. Aspects of animation that demonstrate change are;
     Specialised companies entering the industry (Pixar)
     Access has widen due to technology
     Consumption of animation has increased (shift to adolescent and young adult market)
     Increase in marketing of paraphernalia
     Wider variety of animated texts (interactive computer games)

    Considering the implications of globalisation for the Popular Culture

    Globalisation is the increasing communication speed ad regularity is having a shrinking effect on the world. This occurs due to new technology (television and internet). Globalization of popular culture may increase. A global village may occur where animated films, have formed strongest bongs between differing societies. Television is more limited by national boundaries than film.

    The implications of globalisation are a variety of and complexity of cultures throughout the world may not be as rich as it was in the past (due to dominance of western culture).

    The effect of global media culture can be measured in many ways. Animation in particular influence individuals within society. They transmit values, for example Shrek pokes fun at Disneyland and peoples complexes, and Pokemon where team effort is important. It is clear they have a psychological effect on people and social impact on groups.

    The availability of overseas non American animated texts have increased over the years, especially Japanese. This has allowed Australians a boarder choice. Yet this can threaten local animated films such as the Magic pudding which did not receive the same box office success as other animated films such as toy story or Shrek. Australian animated texts are generally exported to England. However this doesn't generate huge profit for Australian film industry.



    Identifying the impact of technology upon the Popular Culture

    Technology has had a huge impact on animation as it has allowed it to move beyond the original sketched cells. With then introduction of computers, images can be generated with surround sound and objects you feel like u can touch. Technology has been made cheaper and commercialized. perhaps in the future multimillion dollar contracts will vanish as directors will find it easier to work with animated actors.

    Shrek and Final Fantasy are examples of movies where that has happened, yet voices are still needed. In the trial screening of Shrek the viewers thought Fiona looked too real, against the stylized other characters. Shrek has also been made into Imax form with 3D. SANDDE technology allows artists to draw in 3D. It may even be possible in the future to turn old movies into 3D. Or even interactivity a 4D experience, already existing in theme parks. In regards top gaming, the graphics and realistic nature has immensely improved. Children are now able to become involved in the game physically and feel the game environment, such as a cyber skating game.

    Paraphernalia, toys are battery operated, interactive computer games and internet games. Consumption, purchasing through the internet, use of mobile phones, cable TV. Consumption become wider due to computerised dubbing in different languages.
    Production, computer assisted/generated, digital sounds and 3d animation. Use of sophisticated software that enhances the animation. In Shrek computers enabled them to do realistic facial expressions, fire and liquid effects. Also clothing and hair and skin had software created to stimulate those effects. Employment, internet access to bets staff, newspaper ads, computer data base.

    Interaction can occur through both the cinema and games. The cinema has surround sound, projection equipment and computerised ticket sales, while games can be used on PC's, playstation and game boys. Cinema surround sound, projection equipment, computerised ticket sale.

    Considering future directions for the Popular Culture.

    There has been an increase in commercial format of, movies, DVDs are interactive, stage productions such as the lion king, Imax, computer games and increase in the types of paraphernalia. Technology has further increased all of these and consumption and access.

    Consumers, there has been an increase in the number of people consuming the commercial product. This will lead to an ever increasing wider audience, including adults and children. The profit will continue to be the driving force behind popular culture. Themes continue to focus on social issues (the Simpson's) to interest older markets and the morals and tradition stories target younger viewers. It will last longer. Characters will become more realistic with light reflects off skin and the use of dermatologist help to create software.

    Case Study

    The Simpsons

    CREATION
    James L Brooks produced the "Tracey Ullman Show" he added a series of short animated segments between skits and commercials. The cartoon was the Simpsons drawn and written by Matt Groening about a family that become a hit in the 1980s. It was later expanded to a half an hour Christmas specials. It became one of the highest rating shows.

    CONSUMPTION
    The Simpsons turned into millions of dollars worth of paraphernalia, which was consumed rapidly. There were T-shirts, bumper sticker, beach towels and other products. Not since the teenage Mutant Ninja turtles had there been such a profitable marketing phenomenon. The target market is both adults and children. It has continued to be a rating success and mind boggling pop culture phenomenon.

    CONTROL
    Ownership of the Simpsons was by fox network. Voice actors such as Harry Shearer who does many of the characters voices also has ownership. Celebrities are eager to do voices of characters. Fans are delighted in hearing familiar TV favourites on the show such as Roseanne and Michael Jackson.

    PERCEPTIONS
    There are both good and bad perceptions. People have an acceptance of Bart, they love him because he is a mischief maker with comments such as "eat my shorts". Also there is an acceptance because people like the fact that the Simpsons doesn't "sugar coats" the notion of family relationships. Yet at times there is rejection of The Simpsons as they can be vulgar, cynical and impudent.

    SOCIAL CHANGE
    The show offers lessons in life and messages are targeted at adults. These messages include; scepticism about IQ tests, critique of parents who base love on accomplishments, uneasiness of children joining a new class, envy of other goods, emphasis on popularity in schools, male chauvinism, child exploitation.

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    Work and Leisure: Australia notes

    Fundamental Concepts

    Persons
    Every person is a unique individual, but each develops in a social setting in which they are influenced by, and interact with, other persons. The process of communication is one of these fundamental interactions.

    Society
    Society is made up of people, groups, networks, institutions, organisations and systems. These aspects of society may include local, national and international patterns of relationships. People belong to informal and formal groups, and within and between these groups there are patterns of interactions.

    Culture
    Culture refers to the knowledge, ways of thinking, feeling and behaving that give each society its coherence and its distinctive way of life. Culture is demonstrated by the beliefs, customs, values, laws, arts, technology and artefacts people generate and use as they interpret meaning from their world and solve present and future problems.

    Environment
    Every society is located in a particular physical setting. The attitudes and values people have in regard to their environment greatly affect interactions between the person, society, culture, and environment. Environments present societies with both opportunities and restraints.

    Time
    Every person, society and environment is located in time and is changing through time. Our perceptions of time as past, present and future are also important for social enquiry and action. These perceptions draw on past events that influence our present. They need not, however, determine our future. We can perceive a range of possible futures that can assist our decision-making.











    Key Concepts
    Work
    Productive activity paid or unpaid. The nature of work will be strongly influenced by such factors as cultural context, gender, continuity and change.
    Leisure
    The time you have free from the demands of work or other duties. leisure can be active and passive.
    Alienation
    Finding it difficult to cope in the changing work environment or feeling a loose of control over the social world. This can result in a sense of being an outsider or "alien"
    Hierarchy
    Work and Leisure organisations usually have a formal structure that involves a chain of command. An individual's importance will decrease the further down their are in the hierarchy.
    Cooperation
    Working towards a common goal, team behavior.
    Status
    Position in society may effect work opportunities and choice of leisure activities.
    Identity
    The work a person does contributes a great deal to their sense of self. Other peoples perceptions are partly shaped by this knowledge too. An unemployed person may experience depression.
    Conflict
    Struggle for power within and between work and leisure organisations are instances of conflict.
    Continuity
    The nature and types of work people do and leisure activities they pursue will have a strong base in the tradition of their culture.
    Values
    Work and Leisure reflect the things that people hold as being of utmost importance. The "work ethic" is an example of a historical value.
    Customs
    Established ways of thinking and acting in society are evident in the way people behave at work and in leisure activities.
    Change
    Alterations in the patterns of work and leisure may occur because of factors such as technology, globalisation and contact with other cultures.
    Class
    Class system of dividing society into levels based mostly on economic status.
    Norms
    Expectations of behavior are shared by members of work and leisure organisations. These will reflect the microculture of particular organisations as well as the culture surrounding society.

    The Nature of Work and Leisure

    The concept of work and the work ethic

    Work is a productive activity, paid or unpaid. The nature of work will be strongly influenced by such factors as cultural context, gender, continuity and change. The concept of work varies from each society.

    Work Ethic, sociologist Max Weber (1990) researched whether beliefs and ideas cause change in society.
     Capitalism changed the nature of American and European societies. They became hard working, money making, spent money on idle luxuries which should be invested to create wealth.
     The development of Europe's religious beliefs shaped the attributes of the early capitalists.
     The industrial revolution originated in England, 18th century and saw the application of new technologies to the automation of goods. New energy sources provided machines work instead of human labour. Poor people were working in bad conditions, with long underpaid hours. Trade Unions were created to help this.

    Protestant Work Ethic
    Religious based and hard workers. There was an obligation to work for society (church pushed). The churches had to keep the workers in line. Values such as "Luxury is a sin", indulging in material goods other than those you need and "Survival of the fittest", those who live immoral lives will die out eventually.

    Contemporary Work Ethic
    In Western societies such as Australia the work ethic is more secular (non religious). People strive to achieve career goals and personal milestones. An example of this is a family encourages a student to study for the HSC so they can get a good job. Some values are "striving to achieve is worthy and desirable" set study and career goals and work towards them and "To work is worthy, to not work is unworthy" feel guilty is you are unemployed.

    The concept of leisure, including active and passive leisure

    Leisure is the time you have free from the demands of work or other duties. Leisure can be active, physically involved or passive, being a spectator. Both work and leisure complete for a person's time.

    Active - is when you become physically involved such as playing netball or dances.
    Passive - is absorbing activities, spectator in an event, watching movies or reading.
    Borderline - is playing computer games, seeing a band, have both active and passive elements.
    Unpaid work
    Two significant areas or unpaid work within Australian society are; Homemakers, and volunteer workers.

    Homemakers
    It is said that the role of a homemaker is low social status. Yet a housekeeper is a productive, important work that needs to be recognized. In an attempt to raise the status of homemaker's worth, the Australian Bureau of Statistics indicated that the unpaid household worth in Australia was valued at $227 800 million, accounting for the hiring, labour and function of a homemaker.

    Volunteer Work
    Volunteers make a significant contribution to Australian society. The present the value of community service, such as helping others. The type of work the do and organisations they represent are many including; sport, recreation, education, welfare and community activities. Women are more likely to be volunteers. Men work in sport and recreations, while women, education, and welfare.

    The interrelationship of work and leisure
    Hobbies, photography, DJ skills, theatrical production are on the boundary between Work and Leisure. These activities can be seen as "productive" and can be converted into careers.

    Sport can also become work. Someone who is successful at amateur sport can turn "professional". An income is then received, sponsorship and endorsements.

    Work, leisure, and education are also interrelated. The Education systems provide skills and knowledge in order to take career direction. Also flexibility allows a person to cope with rapid change to help with the change in careers over working life.

    The social and cultural importance of leisure
    Leisure is socially and culturally important, as it serves four main functions in society.

    Relaxation - Rest, de-stress, revitalizing them for metal or physical demands or work.

    Exercise - good nutrition, active leisure activities are seen as good health.

    Enculturation - clubs and groups teach individuals patterns of cultural behavior that is important in society, teamwork, responsibility and leadership. Example "skirmish"

    Community service - people's involvement in leisure activities give opportunities to organize clubs. This is selfless involvement. Recognition is shown on the micro scale.
    An example is "clean up Australia day"



    The relationship between education, work and leisure
    A function of the social institution of education is tom equip young people with cultural knowledge they need to interact with others in future work and leisure. This is an aspect of Enculturation and socialisation. The cultural knowledge may be general, social interaction, sporting teams or learning about business. It could also be specific such as VET courses in school.

    A social institution is a system that has been devised by society to cater for an essential need of society. Education is an example of an institution.

    Enculturation is learning to use the accepted patterns of cultural behavior your culture prescribes.














    The impact of society on work and leisure

    Work, leisure and personal identity
    A person's identity, sense of self is partly influenced by their perception of the job they do or leisure activities. Other people's perceptions of the person will be partly shaped by this knowledge. A person who has been used to defining themself by a particular occupation, e.g. a teacher may experience anxiety, depression and a feeling of loss of identity should they become unemployed for a long period of time, or alienated from society. The person who defines themself as involved in a leisure activity such as amateur Theatre, Continued participation may assist them in overcoming a feeling of alienation that they have gotten from the loose of their job.

    The work force offers us an extension of our identity. What we do in terms of employment, reflects our social standing and that reinforces our sense of self. Work affects all aspects of your life, home, family relationships, friendships and leisure time. It can alter/extend your social network. It can make you question your values or beliefs within a community.

    Work influences our socialization because it is part of it. Work helps us satisfy our needs and wants. Work creates a social status, so we respond to social, personal and cultural values. A public image is gained through an individuals work, while a private identity is gained through interest and hobbies.

    Jobs within society that are considered "high status" are Barristers, Judges, prime Minster, Mayor and Doctors. Jobs that are "low status" are Taxi drivers, Hairdressers and garbage collectors. Our occupation status ( our job and earning) reflects and develops our position in class. "Success' in life equates to a large earning. So if we have a rewarding job our class in society would reflect that.

    Employment/unemployment and perception of self
    Society acknowledges that there are both personal and social costs attached to issues of unemployment. Being unemployed is synonymous with being out of work. This absence of income directly affects the quality of life and unemployed people face psychological problems related to self worth, drugs, violence.

    Being unemployed means that the person is removed from elements of socialization. This means their opportunity and social value is reduced. Unemployment can cause a loss of self esteem, and confidence contributing to long term unemployment and depression. Those who face unemployment experience loss of skills

    Innovations in technology, such as computer aided production, sophisticated communication technology has reduced the demand and need for some occupations. This means that workers skills are no longer useful.

    For those who are unemployed within Australia, they fall into several groups, youth women and members of ethnic groups. Hidden unemployment apply to people who have short term employment.

    Being out of work means that
    Money
    wage is cut, without an income, anxieties about coping with day to day life multiply.
    Activity Level
    employment provides exercise and skills. Without employment these are reduced.
    Variety
    Employment provides access to contexts that contrast with domestic surroundings.
    Temporal Structure
    Regular employment there is a rhythm of work, that is organized. Those who are out of work frequently find boredom a major problem.
    Social contact
    The work environment often provides friendship and opportunities to participate in shared activities with others.
    Personal Identity
    Employment is usually valued for the sense of stable social identity it offers. Unemployment may determine an individual's confidence and social valve.


    Perception of self, the way we see ourselves, the way we think others see us. This can be both positive and negative and is effected by age, ability, education, class, status, ethnicity, gender and background. Perception of Self is a changing process as we are socialized our perceptions may/will change.

    Employment, helps determine ones social status "he's a lawyer", "she's a doctor". Employment affects the way people value themselves in the social hierarchy and the way others see and treat them. Employment gives individuals income to satisfy needs and wants. Individuals in society are often identified by what they do.

    Employment
     Gives people an identity
     Gives them a role/ purpose in society
     Allows for social contact and exchange of ideas
     Money earned allows people to improve their material well being
     generally a positive feeling for employed people.
    HOWEVER
     Jobs can give people a negative perception such as
     prostitutes, garbage collectors and "checkout" chicks.
     They may not see their status as high and this impacts on how they see themselves.

    Unemployment
     Short tem/fractional may not change our perceptions
     BUT long term unemployment can lead to serious personal problems
     low self esteem
     frustration, anger and depression
     These will impact on our perceptions of self as a worthwhile human
    HOWEVER
     some unemployed people choose not to work and being out of work may nit impact
     these include, volunteers, house wives and very wealth.

    Society reduces unemployment by creating sustained growth in economic activity each year. It widens the range of education and training courses to ensure Australian's skills and qualifications to take up new jobs. Help the long term unemployed to move back into the labour force.

    Individuals can reduce their chances of becoming unemployed by developing skills and qualifications, using resources of career advice and guidance, taking up special interests in industries predicted to grow quickly, IT, hospitality and management.

    The unemployed are people under 234, aborigines, females, older blue collar workers and the physical or metal disabilities.

    The relationship between power and authority and work and leisure
    People in the workplace and Leisure have assigned roles. These have a status and are part of a hierarchy. Power and Authority both exist here.
    Authority is the legitimate power, the right to exercise power because of your positron.
    Power is the control over, influence to make others do things they would not normally do.

    Work has laws and rules which operate in the workplace such as; hours, wages, conditions and safety. The managers have power to control the work practices. Trade Unions have authority to uphold rules to enable the workers to have good working conditions.
    Leisure has laws and rules which ensure safety is upheld and acceptance of standards. The umpires have power within Leisure activities. The umpires also have authority as they adhere to the rules.
    Both work and Leisure institutions are controlled by those who have power and authority, this is the relationship. The relationship between these 4 concept can cause conflict.

    Work and Leisure are institutionalized. That is there are structures and organisations which are responsible for and have control over work and leisure.
    Examples of power and authority in the world of work and leisure include;
     government statues (laws) such as hours worked, minimum awards wages
     Trade unions
     Court structures and associated precedents (decisions made)
     Independent tribunals (Little Athletics Union)
     Laws prohibiting certain kings of human behavior relating to prostitution, child pornography.
    Examples of power and authority in the world of Leisure include;
     Tribunals have power over both professional and amateur sports (expulsion)
     Censorship board has power and control over cinema and TV viewing (age)
     Laws regulating and controlling other aspects of our lives (who can drink, smoke)]
     Laws relating to recreational drug use and the use of performance enhancing drugs.

    Unequal power, there is unequal power relations in the use and control of economic resources. Mangers and owners can hire and fire workers as they wish. Employees have little control over the way the business is run. Workers interest often come after the interest of investors, banks. Strong unions can enhance their bargaining position and protect from the worst imbalance in power.

    Globalisation refers to interconnected changes. Companies invest on a global basis and move around the world in search of cheap labour basis. In Australia it has resulted in loss of jobs in certain industry, textiles. Companies seeking higher profit restructure the work using new technologies and this reduces jobs.

    Different attitudes held by those with vested interests in the workplace, eg owners management, unions, workers and their families and governments

    Vested interests means that each of these groups are stakeholders, each need workplaces to operate successfully. Cooperation between these groups generally results in an harmonious workplace. There are many different stakeholders in the work place they include;

    WORKERS AND FAMILIES. Their vested interests include, job security, good income, safe working conditions, good relationship with employer.
    TRADE UNIONS. Their vested interests are best possible wages and working conditions, strong membership and commitment, power/influence in society.
    OWNER/MANAGER. Their vested interests are maximum profits, secure markets, low taxes, smooth operating business, loyalty and hard working employees.
    GOVERNMENT. Their vested interests are successful business, providing revenue from taxes, harmonious workplace, employees vote for them, implement political ideas, equal employment opportunities.

    Conflict and cooperation in the work place
    Sweatshops
    The argument for this is that if the employee worked more the business would be more successful. If they work more they get more money. It was unfair of the ACTU to govern how much they would work, not allowing the employees to choose. The stakeholders involved were the sweatshop workers, the ACTU Trade Union.

    Centralized wage fixation system
    Hawke Government had a high degree of union involvement, the Australian Industrial relations commission established.

    Decentralized system
    Howard government 1996, Union power minimal, Industrial relations commission power cut, unfair dismissal laws change in favor of the employer. This deunionised many workplaces, laws were passed to restrict the rights of workers to strike and this ultimately lead to reduced work conditions and job security.

    An example of conflict and cooperation is the Gordonstone Mine Dispute
    Its stakeholders were the owners of the mine who wanted maximum profits, good international relations, loyal and hardworking employees and power over workers and unions. The union members of the workers wanted, a strong and unionized workforce, good conditions, power and influence and good relation with employer. Rio Tinto the company buying out Gordonstone wanted profit when buying, profit from the mine and hardworking employees. Residents of Emerald, had town workers who wanted job security, economic stability in the town and the mine to stay open.



    The effect of social class on work and leisure aspirations and opportunities
    Aspiration, a goal or standard you aim to achieve.
    Opportunity, a chance to achieve.

    Class is a system of dividing society into levels, based mostly on economic status. Class may influence people's social expectations regarding the careers they may get or restrict opportunity to access various types of employment and leisure. If a person's family is low income earners then their work and leisure activities may be very different to those with high income. Consequently this may effect career and leisure aspirations. If circumstances change, aspiration can change accordingly.

    Vertical social mobility refers to ones position to another of either higher or lower rank. Horizontal social mobility refers to the movement from one social position to another of an equal status. Social Class of parents is usually similar to the children's. Education provided skills, values, and contacts that help us define our social class. Occupation of individual determine their salaries, and opportunities and ultimately effect their leisure activities and opportunity. Race and Ethnicity can limit peoples social status. Gender, as in women can be restricted because if discrimination.

    Values and attitudes about work are passed down generations. Social class influences your environment and education opportunities and this can effect the work u do. Your social class effects the amount of time available for leisure and type of activity.

    Lower Class
     Generally blue collar workers
     Lack of job security
     Education often limited
     Lower paid jobs, repetitive.

    Middle Class
     Aspirations to improve position
     Movement up corporate ladder
     Opportunities may be limited with education

    Upper Class
     Generally better/higher paid jobs
     opportunities is based on level of education
     aspirations and opportunities higher
     Multi skilled





    The effect of gender on work and leisure aspirations and opportunities
    A person's gender can affect aspirations and opportunities concerning work and leisure. Cultural expectations will be on of these factors influencing different roles of males and females take in work and leisure and their attitudes. Both genders may be happy with a situation, but if not change occurs through protests and conflict. It is more likely for women to be discriminated against in terms on career aspirations and opportunities.

    Australian workers, more than half considers themselves in the wrong job. It appears that women dislike their job more than men do. Accountants hate their jobs the most. Women earn less than men and there are gender discrepancies in wage and women are discriminated against.

    The notion that men are the breadwinners. The nature of work performed by women was often associated with domestic tasks. Traditional role of women was as care taker. Marriage frequently meant that female employment was terminated. Women joined armed forces with WW2 and did roles carried out by men. The socialization process which reaffirms the domestic role of women continued to make it different for women to pursue careers. Trade Unions helped fix inequalities. Sport was often limited for women.

    WORK
    Typical male employment was builders, politicians, doctors and fireman
    Typical female employment was teachers, nurses, hairdresser and house wives.

    LEISURE
    Typical male leisure was fishing, football and hunting
    Typical female leisure was netball, art, dance and reading. There was also less money in female leisure.

    The impact of marketing on leisure and the leisure industry
    Marketing is the selling of products and services through advertising publicity and promotion. Marketing enables businesses to satisfy the needs and wants of consumers. In 1980 Australia was marketed to the rest of the world as a country with lots of space, large outback. We were said to have great food and be friendly. The effects of marketing on the leisure industry and on leisure products are adopted across the world through the internet. Consumers can purchase new products on websites.

    Today leisure had broadened to include more areas e.g. home entertainment, tourism and computer use. Leisure has become a commodity to be bought or sold. Today money can be made out of leisure, the development of the leisure industry. The cost of marketing leisure activities are paid for by consumers. Globalisation has meant that leisure activities can be accessed all around the world, via the internet and cable TV. Casualisation in the workplace and part-time has meant more leisure time.

    The relationship between tourism, leisure and the environment
    Tourism is an activity undertaken in leisure time. Tourism has grown in importance with improvements in transport and now takes a greater proportion of leisure time. Tourism is a leisure product and represents a threat to the environment with the construction of resorts, golf courses and building of associated housing services means the clearing of forests, displacement of farmers and pollution.

    As people tour more they become more aware of different environments, but have greater impact on them in a negative way e.g. pollution, destruction of cultural and heritage areas, extinction plants and animals. Leisure ethics have developed overtime in a desire to preserve the environment. Environmental leisure activities done throughout Ecotourism include; watching birds bush tucker walks, swimming with fish.

    Ecotourism is being encouraged i.e. tourism which doesn't harm the environment. Natural environments are visited by managed groups or people guided and educated by environmental experts. There are elevated walkways built over wetlands or cable car systems so that impact is minimal. The aim of such tourism is to raise awareness of environmental issues. Ecotourism also provides jobs and is sustainable tourism. Tourism ( a leisure product) has put the environment under pressure.

    Changes in leisure activities can be traces to cultural influences portrayed in magazines. Leisure sport and activities are often related to income. Leisure is an industry and a form of consumption of goods related to an activity, or the services rendered, or travel involves. Some examples include; watching TV, sales of TV, videos, tourism industry, designed to cater for people with leisure time. Professional and amateur sports are paid, and viewing these usually are higher income earners. Technological change and innovation has brought more competitiveness. Interest in sport has come for media attention and advertising, related sponsorship of industry.

    Sport as work
    Sport can be work for those people as professional sportsmen and women and those who work in the sports industry, sports medicine, clothing, coaches. Sport has generated its own industry and has many related and specialised sources. Teams have serval coaches, there is sports medicine and related design and manufacture of sports clothing and equipment. The most significance changes have been in sport medicine and technology and the involvement of businesses. Also the growing concern for access from the disadvantages and minority groups. Professional sports attract paying audiences and it is a profitable business. This has changed the nature of sport into a business industry There is now a sport industry and business is profitable therefor sport can be work.

    The leisure industry specifically provides for the need of leisure. It offers many benefits, especially tourism; employment opportunities, contribute to national income and generate potential for greater intercultural understanding and communication. The negative side of tourism, is that it puts stress on the wilderness ad heritage. Leisure can also be seen as work by those who provide the activities and equipment.

    Continuity and change for work and leisure
    The impact of technology
    Technology is a tool that makes a task easier, has impact on work and leisure perhaps more than other aspects of society and culture. The introduction of new machinery technologies in the industrial revolution changes the nature of work, new socials construct, work scheduled, highlighted a need for leisure time to compensate. Recently the digital revolution has seen similar upheaval in the nature of work and leisure. Computerised processes have resulted in the disappearance of old work, and other work being done differently, ATMs and new types of work, IT industry. Leisure products and activities are constantly changing a technology changes. Computer games, recreational use of the Internet, MP3 music and DVDs were inconceivable in the 1960s. New communication technologies such as the internet and mobile phones have impacted on how people work and leisure.

    Technology is the body of information, skills, experiences in the production of goods. The industrial revolution gave us mass production, Information revolution had massive changes to the IT sector, the microchip. This meant growth in new jobs and news skills and industries. Technology and the information revolution has had an impact on the nature of work. Workers had to be reskilled, machines and robots took over, redundancy increased, some deskilling has occurred. The impact ion types of work, increase in computer related jobs, increase in jobs associated with technology such as the textiles industry with CAD, authors word-processing and banks ATMs. Impact of availability has meant workers need new skills, many new jobs were created. Impact of technology on the leisure industry has meant many leisure activities revolve around entertainment facilities e.g DVDs, cable. Also jobs are created and there is growth in tourism.

    There are both positive and negative impacts of technology. The Introduction of new technology tends to stimulate change in the economy and society. Australia is in constant state of social change. Institutions that can be affected, family loss of function, influences of religion shrinks, science emerges as new social institution and laws, sports, medicine become elaborate.

    Changing patterns of work and leisure
    Content Analysis - In traditional societies the nature of work and leisure remains constant (continuity). While in modern western societies there is change in the patterns of work in regards o gender, part-time causal work, job sharing, leisure as work and the leisure industry.

    GENDER
    There is social movement with increased awareness of women's roles in other culture and this may bring change in attitudes to improve women's status in work and leisure opportunities in Australia. The latest statistics show that there are more females in the workplace than ever. In 1990 51% of females worked, while in 2000 that has increased to 54%. This is certainly a change from the notion that men are the breadwinners. The nature of work often associated with women were domestic tasks. Marriage often meant that the work of women was terminated.


    CASUAL PART TIME WORK
    There are continuities and changes in social attitudes towards employment and unemployment. It appears that Australians still value employment, as seen through their work ethic. A job gives people a status and identity in society and it appears that more people would rather have causal and part-time jobs than be unemployed. Statistically more people are working part-time. During 1990, 21% of the total labour forces were working part-time and this has increased to 26% in 200. This change has occurred for both genders, however many more females work part-time; 12% males and 43% females in 2000.

    Technological changes have also allowed people to work from home. It seems that Australians still value employment and their work ethic. Changes in attitudes have happened through people wanting to work causal and part-time. This change means that Australians no-longer feel they have to work a 40 hour week, and they have more leisure time. Australians used to work unreasonable house and this caused damage to their family, friendships and community life. An example of this can be seen in the ACTU report outlining the hours worked by sweatshop workers and its effects.

    JOB SHARING
    With the change in work patterns in Australia, the concept of job sharing has emerged. Job sharing is when two people share one full time position. In Australia society, job sharing is increasing and it is usually associated with extended business jobs and women who have a career and children. This has meant that no longer do women need to resign from their jobs when they have children, by job sharing they can work 2-3 days a week and still be a parent. This gives them job satisfaction and an identity above being a housewife. Job sharing has also enabled people to spend more time doing what they enjoy and placing equal value upon leisure and work.

    LEISURE AS WORK
    There is am leisure and work crossover where the development of a leisure interest can form a career. Examples of leisure that can become "paid" work are professional sporting athletes or people interested in computer can become WebPages designers. The leisure sector has had huge growth because of changes in social attitudes towards leisure. People appear to value leisure more and meant leisure activities are now costly, targeted at the higher income earner. This growth has create jobs in leisure and formed a Leisure industry.

    LEISURE INDUSTRY
    The leisure industry is organizations and businesses who produce leisure related products and activities. It is a form of consumption and has economic value. The leisure industry has been further marketed and this has created products such as tourism. Tourism is a leisure product that can present a threat to the environment with the construction of resorts, however Ecotourism has been introduced to stop this. This type of Ecotourism aims to cerate awareness of environmental issues. Bushwalking, swimming with fish are two environmentally friendly leisure activities.
    Also in the leisure industry technological change has caused innovation in sports. This change has generated sport to have its own industry. There now exists sport related medicine, clothes and goods which can be purchased. Also professional sports also attract paying spectators, which is profitable business. Therefore it can e said the leisure industry provides employment opportunities (for both males and females) and contributes to national income and generates intercultural communication.

    CONCLUSION
    Overall the work ethic and perceptions of jobs have changed. People now have the opportunity to work part-time, causal or job share which create more leisure time. There are also more gender equality with more females in the workforce and working part-time. There has also been a huge growth in the leisure industry. more Australians will pay for leisure products and activities and these types of activities have been altered due to technology innovation. Leisure can now be consumed as a product or cross over to become work.

    Continuities and changes in social attitudes towards employment and unemployment
    Social attitudes within Australian have changed towards employment. The work ethic has changed as well as the perception that it is your right to have a job. Now you have to earn the right to have a job.
    Social attitudes in Australia towards unemployment have changed too. We are more understating of the unemployed because we realize how hard it is to get a job and that there are more people than jobs.

    Continuities and changes in social attitudes towards leisure
    The values towards employment and unemployment and leisure represent continuity. A strong work ethic may cause other members in society to be negative towards those who do not have a job. Clear and rigid gender roles determine women's work and leisure activities. This could mean an increase in women in the workforce making it necessary for more child care. Acculturation, the diffusion of ideas from one culture to another, introduces different notions of what constitutes work and leisure. If a predominantly agricultural society embraces tourism, farmers may become tour guides or start businesses such as restaurants.

    Within Australia peoples identities connect to their work and leisure, work is values and focuses on achievement, work supplies an income and provide material items, leisure is distinct from work, may cross into a leisure industry, leisure is also values and focuses on relaxation.

    Today people pay for leisure, this makes it divisible between classes, the higher class you are the better activities you can participate in. The number of people in both full and part time work has increased as has the number of hours worked; there are also more discouraged job seekers today. The work ethic and peoples attitudes have also changed. People have much less time to participate in leisure due to other commitments. The types of leisure activities have changes and it is costly.
    A Focus Study Australia
    Changes in work and leisure over time

    In traditional societies the nature of work and leisure remains constant (continuity). While in modern western societies there is change in the patterns of work in regards o gender, part-time causal work, job sharing, leisure as work and the leisure industry.

    TECHNOLOGY
    Technology is a tool that makes a task easier, has impact on work and leisure perhaps more than other aspects of society and culture. The introduction of new machinery technologies in the industrial revolution changes the nature of work, new socials construct, work scheduled, highlighted a need for leisure time to compensate. Recently the digital revolution has seen similar upheaval in the nature of work and leisure. Computerised processes have resulted in the disappearance of old work, and other work being done differently, ATMs and new types of work, IT industry. Leisure products and activities are constantly changing a technology changes. Computer games, recreational use of the Internet, MP3 music and DVDs were inconceivable in the 1960s. New communication technologies such as the internet and mobile phones have impacted on how people work and leisure.

    The industrial revolution gave us mass production, Information revolution had massive changes to the IT sector, the microchip. This meant growth in new jobs and news skills and industries. Technology and the information revolution has had an impact on the nature of work. Workers had to be reskilled, machines and robots took over, redundancy increased, some deskilling has occurred. The impact ion types of work, increase in computer related jobs, increase in jobs associated with technology such as the textiles industry with CAD, authors word-processing and banks ATMs. Impact of availability has meant workers need new skills, many new jobs were created. Impact of technology on the leisure industry has meant many leisure activities revolve around entertainment facilities e.g DVDs, cable. Also jobs are created and there is growth in tourism.

    There are both positive and negative impacts of technology. The Introduction of new technology tends to stimulate change in the economy and society. Australia is in constant state of social change. Institutions that can be affected, family loss of function, influences of religion shrinks, science emerges as new social institution and laws, sports, medicine become elaborate.

    GENDER
    Women have achieved a significant amount of change in regard to work. Effective lobby groups such as women's electoral lobby have put pressure on employers groups and governments to introduce changes to polices, work practices and legislation. WEL aims to create a society which doesn't restrict women's participation to achieve their full potential. It ensures women have equals rights to work while pregnant, provision of child care, paid maturity leave and anti discrimination laws. Anti discrimination laws allow for equal opportunities and employment.

    There is social movement with increased awareness of women's roles in other culture and this may bring change in attitudes to improve women's status in work and leisure opportunities in Australia. The latest statistics show that there are more females in the workplace than ever. In 1990 51% of females worked, while in 2000 that has increased to 54%. This is certainly a change from the notion that men are the breadwinners. The nature of work often associated with women were domestic tasks. Marriage often meant that the work of women was terminated.

    CASUAL PART TIME WORK
    There are continuities and changes in social attitudes towards employment and unemployment. It appears that Australians still value employment, as seen through their work ethic. A job gives people a status and identity in society and it appears that more people would rather have causal and part-time jobs than be unemployed. Statistically more people are working part-time. During 1990, 21% of the total labour forces were working part-time and this has increased to 26% in 200. This change has occurred for both genders, however many more females work part-time; 12% males and 43% females in 2000. Recent trends have also seen teenagers working part-time. Part-time work offered the chance of a better balance between working life and family responsibilities, training and leisure activities. However part-time work can place women at a disadvantage. Wage rates may be lower than full time workers, access to benefits may be restricted and career prospects limited.

    Technological changes have also allowed people to work from home. It seems that Australians still value employment and their work ethic. Changes in attitudes have happened through people wanting to work causal and part-time. This change means that Australians no-longer feel they have to work a 40 hour week, and they have more leisure time. Australians used to work unreasonable house and this caused damage to their family, friendships and community life. An example of this can be seen in the ACTU report outlining the hours worked by sweatshop workers and its effects.

    JOB SHARING
    With the change in work patterns in Australia, the concept of job sharing has emerged. Job sharing is when two people share one full time position. In Australia society, job sharing is increasing and it is usually associated with extended business jobs and women who have a career and children. This has meant that no longer do women need to resign from their jobs when they have children, by job sharing they can work 2-3 days a week and still be a parent. This gives them job satisfaction and an identity above being a housewife. Job sharing has also enabled people to spend more time doing what they enjoy and placing equal value upon leisure and work.

    LEISURE AS WORK
    There is am leisure and work crossover where the development of a leisure interest can form a career. Examples of leisure that can become "paid" work are professional sporting athletes or people interested in computer can become WebPages designers. The leisure sector has had huge growth because of changes in social attitudes towards leisure. People appear to value leisure more and meant leisure activities are now costly, targeted at the higher income earner. This growth has create jobs in leisure and formed a Leisure industry.
    LEISURE INDUSTRY
    The leisure industry is organizations and businesses who produce leisure related products and activities. It is a form of consumption and has economic value. The leisure industry has been further marketed and this has created products such as tourism. Tourism is a leisure product that can present a threat to the environment with the construction of resorts, however Ecotourism has been introduced to stop this. This type of Ecotourism aims to cerate awareness of environmental issues. Bushwalking, swimming with fish are two environmentally friendly leisure activities.
    Also in the leisure industry technological change has caused innovation in sports. This change has generated sport to have its own industry. There now exists sport related medicine, clothes and goods which can be purchased. Also professional sports also attract paying spectators, which is profitable business. Therefore it can e said the leisure industry provides employment opportunities (for both males and females) and contributes to national income and generates intercultural communication.

    Continuities and changes in social attitudes towards employment and unemployment
    Social attitudes within Australian have changed towards employment. The work ethic has changed as well as the perception that it is your right to have a job. Now you have to earn the right to have a job. Social attitudes in Australia towards unemployment have changed too. We are more understating of the unemployed because we realize how hard it is to get a job and that there are more people than jobs.

    Continuities and changes in social attitudes towards leisure
    The values towards employment and unemployment and leisure represent continuity. A strong work ethic may cause other members in society to be negative towards those who do not have a job. Clear and rigid gender roles determine women's work and leisure activities. This could mean an increase in women in the workforce making it necessary for more child care. Acculturation, the diffusion of ideas from one culture to another, introduces different notions of what constitutes work and leisure. If a predominantly agricultural society embraces tourism, farmers may become tour guides or start businesses such as restaurants.

    Within Australia peoples identities connect to their work and leisure, work is values and focuses on achievement, work supplies an income and provide material items, leisure is distinct from work, may cross into a leisure industry, leisure is also values and focuses on relaxation.

    Today people pay for leisure, this makes it divisible between classes, the higher class you are the better activities you can participate in. The number of people in both full and part time work has increased as has the number of hours worked; there are also more discouraged job seekers today. The work ethic and peoples attitudes have also changed. People have much less time to participate in leisure due to other commitments. The types of leisure activities have changes and it is costly.



    The Future

    Evaluating continuity and change in relation to work and leisure
    WORK
    There have been more changes in work than continuities, though many of societies attitudes have continued.
    Changes have occurred in the types of jobs, nature of hours worked, less gender division, mobility in workplace, more women in workforce and job sharing. Continuities that have remained are the work ethic and view of unemployment.

    LEISURE
    Increasingly accepted value of leisure making better use of leisure time/facilities. This has led to growth of leisure industry plus associated work.
    Changes, have been the types of leisure, more passive, increase in leisure time, growth of leisure industry and gender barriers broken.
    Continuities are that we still value leisure, traditional leisure activities are still undertaken, same rules apply, disapproval of people with too much leisure.

    Future scenarios for the impact of technology on work and leisure
    The driving forces for technological impact on work and leisure are. Social dynamics, people value technological change, lifestyle embraces new technologies. Economic issues are that new technologies are necessary for sustained economic growth. Political issues are that the technological fix can solve all our problems and the government believes economic growth is essential for human development.

    Some critical uncertainties are that, how radical will the changes to the nature and structure of work and leisure be because of new technology. Will new technology create more or less leisure time? To what extent will technology impact on the environment? Also how will people adapt to technological change?

    Possible future patterns of work and leisure
    A scenario can present future conditions as a snapshot in time or present a future history describing evolution of events. They are useful for providing background for planning, assess how well alliterative strategies may work, estimate how action might assist or prevent conditions of a negative scenario.

    Forecast helps us make more definite the choice options we have in the present and may have in the future. A forecast should stand on its own, based on framework and knowledge.

    Work Scenarios, reevaluation of all work which is currently being performed in the economy, paid and unpaid with the family and community. A redistribution of rewards and rethinking of the job status equation and the relative value of types of work.

    Unemployment scenario, large minority of the population unemployed. Young people, migrants, women, old people. Social discontent and disruption.

    Employment scenarios, whatever work that there is available is shared around. Job creation ensures there is work for everyone who wants it in full, part time or casual mode. Government pays people to work on projects of national significance e.g. tree planting, national park programs, aged care.

    Leisure Class Scenario, a group which chooses not to work, or work part time which enables the rest to maintain their traditional work orientation. High technology future with increasing number of people working towards 20 hours a week.

    Other patterns could be;
     People are categorized and identified according to their job rather than by their culture or society.
     Communication could be all seeing and all knowing, threatening people's privacy. Control of information is used to promote personal power.
     Internet literacy has empowered many more people, because they have access to vast amounts of information. Hackers reign supreme, constantly challenging the power of governments and corporations. The internet may become the dominant medium, enabling work to be done from anywhere at anytime. Employees long or uneven work hours are done on call. There would be very little time for leisure, so many people would just entertain themselves via the internet.
     Global commerce dominates because of the power of TNCs and small bushiness have been forces out of market.
     Globalization and global communication networks have all but wiped out political and cultural borders, leaving only individuality to disturb the sameness of the world society.

    How might society be structured around access to work and employment?
    While the future of work is hard to predict, current employment trends give us strong indications of which job won't be around next century. Predictions rely on assumptions hat the past will continue into the future. Over the past years the nature of work and employment in Australia has continued to change because of; new technologies, growth, decline and impact of union movement, changes in working conditions, impact of women's liberation movement, change sin social values, structural changes and changing imports and export patterns. Work may become much more integral to life, leisure and lifestyle.

    Disappearing trades include, checkout staff, Cash register suppliers, Typewriter manufactures, Factory cleaning, Film processors and draughting equipment makers.
    Growth areas include; Designers producing computer software, Personal matchmaker, Escort services, Hi fi and computer dealers, Computer programmers, career consultants and advertising.

    The internet is altering the nature of work by making the world smaller place and enabling people in different countries to work, along side each other, sending software back and forth.
    Changes in the structure of the workforce and the emergence of new employment patterns raise a variety of issues concerning future organizations or work. Changing attitudes towards part-time and casuals employment has meant that these people don't regard work as the central element of their lives, this differs form the earlier work ethic. Much of our identity is associated with our job, therfore if we are causal this may cease to be an important definition of ourselves.

    Qualitative changes has meant changes in the nature of employment patterns have led to changes in the quality of work itself. The introduction of Electronic funds transfer systems has meant that careers in banking are not as certain as in past generations. This means that banks have redefined job tasks at various level and this has resulted in deskilling. A similar pattern has occurred in retailing/ Part-time, temporary and causal staff have been employed to meet peak time shopping needs. technological changes have led to new systems of stock the major stores,. Major retailing firms have replaced full time positions it part-time and causal workers, women, school children and shelving staff. this has meant opportunities to pursue a career has been restricted. The new employment patterns in retailing offers the worker job which are repetitious and require little skill.

    Growth in community services has occurred as a long term alternative to jobs provided in manufacturing sector. These jobs are usually filled by causal or part-time workers. Furthermore community services depend on public funding and are tended not be to protected by Unions. Trade unions have been wary about the extension of causal and part-time employment as it shouldn't be created at the expense of full time job. Employers take the view that worker prefer to get less than a weeks wags if their alternative is not wage at all. The future prospects is that available work is shrinking but the population is not.

    In Australia the emerging issues of stress, health and performance head today's occupational health agenda. According to the ACTU more than 50% of Australians now work more than 40 hours per week in a increasingly pressured environment. Such pressures include complex task demands, heavy workload, decreased job security and changeable organizational structure. Common symptoms of stress, headaches and sleep problems. Globalisation, technical advances and many other factors for out of the control of the average worker have contributed to this. There have been stress related claims. In attempts by the employers to create a safer, more comfortable working environment for employees often start with a professional occupational physician and their company which deals with occupational health and safety issues. There are also OHS issues, physical injuries. This causes managers to be familiar with OHS laws, be alerts at the symptoms of stress and we should all be vigilant in identifying issues of health and safety and report hazards.

    As a widespread positive effect of investing in employee health becomes more apparent, many companies are calling in health experts to monitor, educate and offer suggestions fir the improvement or employee health and wellbeing. one is a company called MBF. Workplace health impacts on the nations economy because of sick leave and workers compensation payouts cost around $10 billion, sick leave costs, stroke costs and smokers taking sick leave.
    L_Chan likes this.

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    hi

    hey did u used to go to yennora public school?

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    Talking Aaaaahhh you rok!!!

    these notes are awesome!!!

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    Popular Culture Revision Notes

    Popular Culture: Teen Movies.


    Popular Culture Criteria.
     Must be associated with commercial products.
     Must have developed from a local to a national to a global level.
     Must allow for consumers to have wide spread access to it.
     Must be constantly changing and evolving.

    Nature Of Popular Culture.
     Typical characteristics of teen movies.
    o Conversations at school lockers.
    o The prom.
    o Cheerleaders.
    o Shopping mall.
    o Juvenile delinquent gang.
    o Sensitive alienated teenage hero.

     Two categories of teen movie.
    o CRAZINESS – characterised by free for all fun sex drugs and rock ‘n’ roll.
    o INNOCENCE – uncomplicated contact with another human being and the unformed impossible dream of a better world tomorrow – hopeless teenage optimism.

     Link between teen movies and mass culture.
    o Teen movies are inseparable from the society within which they exist; one does not produce the other rather each interacts with the other and they mutually determine one and another.

    Creation of teen movies as a form of popular culture.
     Began around 1956 with the rise of the privileged American teenager.
    o First teen movie = rock around the clock.

    This form of popular culture due to three factors.
     Emergence of teenagers as a distinct social group, who had dispensable income and different consumer ideas / desires then adults.
     The catalyst of Sam Katzman’s idea for a movie (rock around the clock) to exploit this new social group.
     Collective decision of the “Hollywood machine” to further pursue this exploitation (juvenilising movies).

    Who is responsible for the transmission of teen movies.
     Transmitted through marketing promotion and distribution by the motion picture industry, includes production corporations such as Waner Bros and United Artists.

    How is it transmitted.
     Newspapers.
     Magazines.
     Television.

    Typical Teen Movie.
     Two different sub groups interacting and crossing over.
     White middle class rich kids attempting to get in with the cooler elements.
     The main character having uncool parents they are trying not to be like.
     Teens sitting around comparing life’s problems.
     Teens getting to for fill fantasies that most normal teenagers are too scared to attempt.
     Teens encountering adult problems, which eventually serve as a growing up experience.

    Teen movies and their influence of Australian society.
     Influence Australians views of:
    o Leisure.
    o Fashion.
    o Life style.
    o Cultural identity.

    Connection between teen movies and other forms of popular culture.
     Teen movies act as a vehicle for transmitting other forms of popular culture.
    o Music.
    o Fashion.

    Who are the consumers of teen movies.
     Consumers have been clearly defined as youth – including those actually in their teenage years.

    Interactive process.
     Influence on individual behaviour.
    o Content of teen movies may inspire consequent expression of personal ideas about popular culture. May become evident through an individuals fashion sense, choice of music or magazine.
     How does this influence contribute to the socialisation process.
    o From characters and situations in a movie a person learns and may be influenced by a knowledge of:
     Behaviours: how does a teenager push the boundaries of what is acceptable in the context of adult determined norms.
     Attitudes and values: what do teenagers think about other people, groups and issues, and what is important in their lives.
     Gender roles: how does a person express masculinity, femineity and sexuality.

    Interrelationship between teen movies and culture.
     Teen movies and aspects of culture interact and mutually determine one another.
    o While adolescents may be influenced by what they see in teen movies a film makers ideas may be inspired by the behaviour of the adolescents in his or her experiences.

    Control of popular culture.
     Subject to control by:
    o Groups – parents.
    o Institutions/institutionalised powers – governments.
    o Organisations – motion picture production companies.
     Internet has allowed control of popular culture to be more flexible as it is harder to exercise control in an area where boundaries are limitless.

    Official and unofficial censorship.
     Censorship by groups and organisations can usually be described as unofficial - through deciding what is acceptable and unacceptable as well as using influence and pressure.
     Official censorship is considered to be the limitations placed on a popular culture by governments. They enforce copyright laws, subsidise and regulate the film industry.

    Different perceptions.
     1968 survey revealed the 48% of box office admissions were 16 – 24 (target audience).
     Culture shock.
    o May be experienced by older people, not only because of the nature of the movie and behaviour, but also because of the slang, activities, music and ideas which exclude parents and others from understanding.

    Ideology of teen films.
     Consumers
    o Belief in the consumption of teen movies as a past time.
     Has been a main leisure activity since 1956.
    o Belief in teen movies as highlighting attitudes of teenagers within the appropriate time frame.
     Producers.
    o Belief in teen movies as a successful genre.
     Allows profit margins to be maintained.
    o Belief in 6 plot lines as being a successful formula to ensure continuity of this form of popular culture.

    Development from local to national to global level.
     Ferris Buellers Day Off.
    o Local. Chicago 11/9/1985 – filmed.
    o National. US and Canada 6/1986 – released.
     Made over $48 million in the first 48 days.
    o Global. UK, France, Germany, Sweden 1986 released.

    Consumers of popular culture.
     The level of consumption of any popular culture varies over time and between individuals.
    o Some consumers will be totally immersed in the popular culture – almost to the exclusion of any other pursuits.
    o Some will make a less in depth commitment.
    o While others it may only be a passing interest.
     The more committed the individual the more likely they are to consume the widest range of texts or paraphernalia available.

    Changing paraphernalia.
     1950’s.
    o Limited at the time.
    o Can now buy T-shirts, lobby cards etc.
     1960’s.
    o At the time of release studios sold lobby cards and posters as a way of promoting the film.
     1980’s.
    o Beginning of large-scale merchandising.
    o Sold stickers, posters, buttons, sound tracks, selected clothing items and stationary.
     1990’s.
    o Same as 1980’s and DVD’s, CD’s, MP3’s, food and clothing.

    Access to popular culture.
     Age.
    o Teen movies were originally constructed for teenage constructed for teenage consumers.
    However retro teen movies (eg. Greece) are now generating a wider audience amongst those adults who wish to recapture memories of their own youth.
     Gender / sexuality.
    o Producers target a specific market depending on the plot line of the teen movie.
     Movies dealing with sex and sport are targeted towards young males.
     Movies dealing with romance and relationships are targeted towards young females.
     Location / class.
    o This form of popular culture is mostly consumed in western cultures.
     Largely due to incomes allowing access to the movies and plot lines which appeal to western consumers.
     NOTE: teen movies such as the ones studied are / have been commercially successful in countries in where cultural variants are different. (Fashion and language).
     Ethnicity.
    o Most globally successful teen movies depict monoculture (white middle class Americans).
     This is largely influenced by the producers of these movies (large American multi national companies).

    Different Perceptions of popular culture.
     Obviously perceptions of this form of popular culture will be different among adults and teens.
    o Adults see this form of popular culture as promoting rebelliousness, selfishness, promiscuity and drug use.
    o Teenagers view this form of popular culture as entertainment and consciousness raising.
    o Perceptions will also differ depending on cultural differences.
     Unlikely that teenagers from different backgrounds would relate to the content as well as American consumers.
     Tension arises when parents or governments try to censor access to this form of popular culture or when special interest groups (eg. Christian democrats party) put pressure on politician’s o raise censorship limits.
    o Usually this type of rejection stems for the lack of understanding of slang used, music, ideas, and past times of teenagers which may leave adults feeling excluded.
    Acceptance or rejection.
     The Australian media does not often report on teen films.
     Film critics are unanimous in their rejection of this form of popular culture, especially if it is written by an adult reviewer.
    o Effect of these reviews is to encourage teens to view the film regardless, as a way of establishing for them selves what all the fuss is about.

    Tension between owners, producers, and participants.
     Owners.
    o No longer movie makers but rather large multinational companies who have little to do with film making.
    o Due to vertical integration independent reviews are very rare.
     Most reviewers are employed by parent companies.
     Producers.
    o Marketing is now a crucial factor in making money from films.
    o Often costs of marketing matches the cost of the film.
    o Opening weekend is now the crucial time for film makers to decide if the film will be successful.
     Participants. (Audience)
    o Consumers want to see big film stars in the movies, this affects producers willingness to “green light” a movie.
    o Films are made to satisfy as international audience = big on action, small on dialog (avoids subtitles).
    o Films being made specifically for a teen audience as they have more of a disposable income.
    o Expectation that successful movies will also have commercial products associated with them.
    o Target audience now 12 – 19 due to the repeat consumption factor.
    o Independent films are now unlikely to make large box office takings, as they do not have support of multinational companies.

    Contribution of popular culture to social change.
     Positives.
    o Teen movies have allowed for the continuance of teenagers as a distinctive sub culture within society.
    o Teen movies allow for the constant introduction of new ideas – fashion, music, and behaviours, thereby highlighting the social change process.
    o Teen movies assist in raising consciousness about moral issues within society – gender roles, drug use, parent child relationships.
    o Teen movies have created an Internet industry with reviews, fan club details, chat lines and marketing of paraphernalia associated with the film.
    o Due to the use of different methods of transmission of these movies, allows for quicker global access by consumers and therefore prompts the latest social fads as soon as they occur.
     Negative.
    o Content lines of teen movies deal with controversial issues, and can promote sexual irresponsibility.
    o Changes traditional power and authority figures. Disrespect for teachers, parent’s law enforcement is encouraged.
    o Opinions of minority groups are given to much attention – larger macro world issues are rarely discussed.
    o Can create negative self image for teens who are constantly being bombarded with clean cut fresh faced middle class white American teens.
    o These types of films may lead to violent rebellious behaviour.

    Essay introduction.
     Teen movies, as a form of popular culture began around 1956 with the rise of the privileged American teenager. Since then they have become a considerable socialisation agent of teenagers, influencing their visions of leisure, fashion, lifestyle and cultural identity.
    Last edited by xanthanotus; 14 Jul 2005 at 10:24 PM. Reason: forgot half the title
    A preoccupation with the future not only prevents us from seeing the present as it is but often prompts us to rearrange the past.

  6. #6
    Banned suger_plum's Avatar
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    why thankyou
    these are wuite handy dandy!

    p.s society and culture sux ass

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    New Member smrtsam's Avatar
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    Thanks Heaps...
    That's GREAT stuff... I think...
    I HATE Society and Culture!!!!!!!!!ARGHhhhhhh~!!
    If everything was just a dream...N none of us reali existed....
    My aim:90+UAI!!!
    Go for it Gal!!

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    Re: Notes - Popular Culture (Animation and Teen Movies) / Work and Leisure (Australia)

    oh thankyou so so so so much... i been lookin for info on technology and its influence on work and leisure... that is the best info ive found... thankyou again *****HUGS*****

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    Re: Popular Culture Revision Notes

    Yes, thank you so much.. The notes on Teen Films has helped me so much

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    Re: Notes - Popular Culture (Animation and Teen Movies) / Work and Leisure (Australia

    You are an actual life saver. Thankyou!!!

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