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IPT Study Thread (1 Viewer)

Takuto

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Figured I'd make one =P. There's one of these in the Biology section and I'm addicted to how fast I am learning and revising things; they're really useful!

So.. how it works is someone asks a question

Then another person answers it and asks another question.

I'll start! =]

Q: What are data dictionaries and why are they used?
 

crammy90

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Takuto said:
Figured I'd make one =P. There's one of these in the Biology section and I'm addicted to how fast I am learning and revising things; they're really useful!

So.. how it works is someone asks a question

Then another person answers it and asks another question.

I'll start! =]

Q: What are data dictionaries and why are they used?
nice man yeh i learn heaps to
Data dictionaries: a set of metadata about the entities of a table.
USED:
  • They provide detail about each enitities attributes, their length
  • Allow maintenance personnel to read the description to determine what data should be input into each field, the data types
  • Can be used to help explain the constituents of a DFD
  • Allow for a common understanding regarding the systems data elements
  • Allows database designer to specify validation rules to increase integrity
Q: identify what is meant by the term "segment" in network topographies. Using this information describe how errors are corrected/avoided on a star physical topography.
 
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Takuto

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^ Segment? Never heard of it..

Is it part of the syllabus?
 
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crammy90

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segments are just like sections of the network set apart from the others by switches etc. A switch places each connected node on its own segment as the cable running to it from each connected node means that each node is connected to a switch and thus in its own segment. its basically just like every nude connected to a bus cable is on that network segment, each node connected on a token ring is in that segment
and the other answer was that collisions dont occur using a star physical as each cable to the central node from each node has 2 channels: one for node to central node and another from node to central node so collisions are impossible.

q: what SW/HW is needed to enable teleconferencing and how does it work. In your answer make comments regarding the transmission of data :)
 

Takuto

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crammy90 said:
q: what SW/HW is needed to enable teleconferencing and how does it work. In your answer make comments regarding the transmission of data :)
Software: Teleconferencing software which displays video and audio, software which controls the sending and receiving of packets
Hardware: ISP, high-speed broadband connection, modem, router, fibre-optic cables (for high speed connection), microphone and camera or webcam, speakers/headphones, CRT monitor, keyboard

Teleconferencing requires a full duplex transmission system (so all parties can send/receive video and audio data simultaneously).

Due to the large nature of the filesize of the uncompressed video and audio being transmitted, high bandwidth broadband connections are required to support the large amount of traffic or teleconferencing will be too slow and choppy to be effective.

Teleconferencing may use buffering, or real time compression techniques, which may decrease the size and improve the usability, experience of the participants and the fluidity of the conference

lol my answers not that good so someone else try it too

Q: Identify three methods of error checking during the transmission of data, then compare and contrast the effectiveness of these methods
 
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crammy90

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Takuto said:
Software: Teleconferencing software which displays video and audio, software which controls the sending and receiving of packets
Hardware: ISP, high-speed broadband connection, modem, router, fibre-optic cables (for high speed connection), microphone and camera or webcam, speakers/headphones, CRT monitor, keyboard

Teleconferencing requires a full duplex transmission system (so all parties can send/receive video and audio data simultaneously).

Due to the large nature of the filesize of the uncompressed video and audio being transmitted, high bandwidth broadband connections are required to support the large amount of traffic or teleconferencing will be too slow and choppy to be effective.

Teleconferencing may use buffering, or real time compression techniques, which may decrease the size and improve the usability, experience of the participants and the fluidity of the conference

lol my answers not that good so someone else try it too

Q: Identify three methods of error checking during the transmission of data, then compare and contrast the effectiveness of these methods
nice thats a good answer. I also read that it uses circuit switching (not packet switching) so that this dedicated link cant be interupted during the commencing of transmission. It might help you to add that in but ur answer was really good :)

Q: Identify three methods of error checking during the transmission of data, then compare and contrast the effectiveness of these methods

Error checking methods are those employed to ensure the data recieved by the recipient is that of which was originally sent. Defined in the protocol to be sued, as specified in handshaking prior to sending, three methods enforce this:
  1. Parity checking: ASCII is a 7-bit code used for the binary representation of keyboard characters and control characters from 0-32. Using this system as an example; the parity check can be either
      1. ODD: An 8th bit is added to each ascii character to form a byte. This bit added will make each packet have an uneven number of 1's.
      2. EVEN: same as odd, except the bit added gives each byte an odd number of ones.
At the recipient, each byte of data is checked to ensure it has the correct number of 1's specified by the protocol of either odd/even.
  1. Checksum: is a block error detection method. It adds up each integer value for each byte of data within the data stream cumulatively, and divides this number by 256 if it is >256. If it is <256 then that number becomes the checksum value. This value is attached as the same byte of the datastream upon sending so that the recipiet device can check it to ensure its value matches that value the recipient calculates.
NOTE: the value is divided by 256 to ensure it can fit into 1 byte. If the number is >256 (i.e. need more than 8 bits), the bits after the first 8 least significant bits (those to the left) are disregarded.
  1. CRC (cyclic-redundancy check): block error detection tool like checksum, however it treats the whole data stream as one unit, gets a massive integer for this entire stream, performs division using Modulo 2 arithmetic with a generator polynomial using xor gates in Integrate Circuits (which is 2^16 bits long for 16-bit crc or 2^32 for 32 bit CRC), and the number it gets after this is the CRC value to be attached.
Effectiveness:
  • Similarities: They all identify errors. Can can all identify single errors where only one bit has been corrupted. (similarities of effectiveness is hard ahahah)
  • Differences:
  1. Partity is not very effective as it cannot detect double errors (where a 1 changes to a 0 and a 0 to a 1.) This limits its use independently of other methods.
  2. Checksum: more effective than parity, however it cannot detect errors where the checksum value of the sent stream matches the corrupted checksum value of the recieved string. Errors are also common due to when during the process of calculating the checksum and the sender, we only take the first 8-bits and disregard the others. This means that for very large numbers, many may have this same first 8 bits. This means the sent data, even though it gets corrupted, will be deemed correct by the recipient machine if the first 8 bits match; not the whole checksum value has to match.
  3. CRC: much more effective than parity and checksum. It reaps all the benefits of parity as it puts a parity check on all of its bits upon sending (usually), plus its own technique adds to this. It can detect double errors and the CRC value, due to the way it is calculated, is rarely going to match the CRC value of a corrupted data. This means errors are kept at a minimum.
Question: state when you would use either Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fibre optics or microwaves. Make reference to their range, their physical properties and their speeds; also including any other relevant factors affecting their use.
 
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Question: state when you would use either Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fibre optics or microwaves. Make reference to their range, their physical properties and their speeds; also including any other relevant factors affecting their use.

thought i would join in so here goes

Twisted pair: consists of pairs of insulated copper wires. it is the cheapest medium but also has the smallest bandwidth. Twisted pair is best used over long distance when not much data is needed, such as normal telephone lines.

Coaxial cable: consists of a thin core of copper wire surrounded by insulating material. the insulation is enclosed in a close woven mesh and surrounded by a plastic layer. coaxial is more expensive than twisted pair but has a larger bandwidth. it also has less interference. twisted pair is best used between cites as it is capable of carrying a larger amount of data.

Fiber optics: is made of very thin strands of glass fiber protected by insulation. Fiber optics works using the principle of total internal refraction. this type of cable is able to carry the largest amount of data as it has the highest bandwidth. however, it is also the most expensive. this is best for a city, as not much cable is required but it would be able to cope with the high demands of the city environment.

Microwaves: are widely used for long distance transmission. they require antennae on high towers buildings or hills to transmit across the line of sight. they require repeater stations every 50km because of the curvature of the earth and other obstacles. they have a large bandwidth however are prone to interference caused by weather. best used for rural communication or over mountains as cabling can not be laid.

i hope this answered the question, it is my first go

so my question is
Describe the process of packet switching, how it works and advantages and disadvantages?
 
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crammy90

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FOB all the way said:
Describe the process of packet switching, how it works and advantages and disadvantages?
Packet switching is a method used to send data between networks, networks nodes and devices using asynchronous serial transmission.
HOW IT WORKS:
  • The data stream to be sent is broken up into predetermined lengths of data called packets (called frames on ethernet) which are attached with a header address, start and stop bits and error checking. They are sent from sender, each taking a different path, where once they reach the destination are re-asssembled into the datastream as indicated in the packet's header addresses (error checks done in the process). Each packet has taken a different route so some may not arrive and thus are asked to be resent. This method (unlike circuit switching) is used by a router which selects the most efficient path for each pachet at the time of sending.
  • ADV: doesnt require a dedicated data transfer channel like circuit switching so many differernt signals can be routed at once. It is fast as the most efficient route is taken by packets.
  • DIS: unlike circuit switching, packets can be lost or interfered with eachother and collide as each data transfer is sharing the same channel.
Q: define the term protocol and explain how a chosen protocol of your choice assists in the transfer of data. Ideas could be SMTP, POP, HTTP
 
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crammy90 said:
Q: define the term protocol and explain how a chosen protocol of your choice assists in the transfer of data. Ideas could be SMTP, POP, HTTP
protocols are defined as a set of rules that governs the transmission between computers. these rules may cover the speed of the transmission, the method of error checking, the procedures to be follows and the size of the data packets. both the sender and the receiver must agree on the rules, this is called handshaking. HTTP or hypertext transfer protocol governs the rules that allow the downloading and displaying of files containing hypertext links across networks.
(hope that answers the last part)

Q Describe the role of a file server on a network
 

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FOB all the way said:

Q Describe the role of a file server on a network
- a server is seomthing dedicated to performing a specific task or managing some aspect on a network.
- a file server is a server dedicated to managing the networks files. Its role is
  • Storage: for all files on the network. Any connected node can access these files other the network; whether they are given permission to is another role of the file server
  • Security: the file server locks records and files so only one user can use them to increase data integrity. It makes files read only if they are in use. Also enforces levels of access set up by the network admin. When users try to access a file or part of the server, their log-in is checked as to whether it is allowed to enter.
  • Privacy (the ability of an individual to control their personal data): it stores log-ins so that when users log-in they can be validated with those log-ins on the file server. If dont match then are rejected from using network. Also allows users to store their own files on their own directory on the server so they can access their files from any connected node. This is an advantage as people dont have to store their files on a single PC's hard disk from which others can access.

Question: Justify when you would use a form view instead of a report
 
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noturningback

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crammy90 said:
Question: Justify when you would use a form view instead of a report
A form view would be appropriate when entering data into a database using a database management system (Such as Microsoft Excel) when only one specific record is being focused on at a time. A report is suited to displaying information from a database (usually based on a query) in an organized and well presented manner. A report is for displaying data as opposed to a form view which is appropriate for the input of data.
A form may be used in a doctors office to view all the specific details about the current patient as they are only dealing with one person at a time however the receptionist may view a report based on a query of the database to view the appointments for the day as they are dealing with many people at once - Blue text incorrect, the receptionist also needs to be able to edit the data, I can't think of a good example
(Comments on this answer would be appreciated ie. ok, good, needs improvement)

Question: Identify and explain TWO conflict resolution strategies that could be used by a project manager
 
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crammy90

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noturningback said:
(Comments on this answer would be appreciated ie. ok, good, needs improvement)
Question: Identify and explain TWO conflict resolution strategies that could be used by a project manager
  • Really good answer :) You said everything i would have said i.e. form is for data entry into the DBMS one record at a time and also navigating through records. Just incase we get asked a big question which we wont because its usually scenarios lol....Could blabble if its worth more marks like "its designed by the database designer. It is the interface between the user and the database so it should be user friendly. It should contain clearly defined headings and non-threatening labels indicating what is required in each section of the form. It is where those input data validation techniques (range check etc) are put into practise to increase data entry to increase data accuracy and ultimately data validation".
  • Then for reports you said everying. It being used to display results of queries. Again, if u had a larger question all i could add of the top of my head would be they have a particular purpose (i.e. invoice etc) and thus a particular layout. They are generated usually using wizards and templates and contain a) static fields (labels), b) dynamic fields (fields from ur database c) Calculated fields (results from queries.
  1. But again, i would have left your answer. Its just because you seemed like u wanted for information i gave you some. And helps me revise lol.
  2. It was good you used an example. That also heaps you understand it. Well it does for me anyway and you get better marks.
I cant really think of an example either lol. I spose for form view it would be for a receptionist taking orders at a business. They enter into the database and then a report is generated in an appropriate manner (i.e. "imports" or some bs) which are given to managers to organise shipping (as they dont wanna be dealing this a db). Then i guess a different report template would be used to generate "exports" aha yeh just crap on

im going to bed ill answer ur q tomoz if some1 hasnt already :)
 

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Example of a DBMS is NOT MS Excel. It's MS Access, you most likely know this, but just thought I'd let you know.

Are all these answers coming out of your heads? I haven't even read information to that much detail in my textbook, which begins to worry me.

I just looked up the conflict resolution strategies, so I wont answer the question, but I have another one to ask which is related to it,

Distinguish between conflict resolution and negotiation skills. - My textbook is very vague on this.
 

crammy90

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Makro said:
Example of a DBMS is NOT MS Excel. It's MS Access, you most likely know this, but just thought I'd let you know.

Are all these answers coming out of your heads? I haven't even read information to that much detail in my textbook, which begins to worry me.

I just looked up the conflict resolution strategies, so I wont answer the question, but I have another one to ask which is related to it,

Distinguish between conflict resolution and negotiation skills. - My textbook is very vague on this.
conflict resolution is just resolving conflicts after they have occured i.e. brain storming or some bs. err i think bargaining, finding common ground etc.
Negotiation skills are employed before problems arise. These are like building trust and shit to avoid having to use conflict resolution.
i dont think we would have to get a question like that tho
 

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Conflict resolution is used to solve disputes. Negotiation skills are used to bargain for the best deal etc.
 
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What is a router and what distinguishes it from a switch?
 

Takuto

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woah, you guys look like you're writing a textbook ,lol

this is meant to be a practice for what you would write in the exam, so dont go too overboard =]

JosephW said:
What is a router and what distinguishes it from a switch?
A router is a device which directs and finds the best possible pathway for data packets to travel through a network

A switch is a device that distributes data packets between the nodes or devices of a network. It receives a data packet and only broadcasts it to the required port.

Both connect devices together and allow for the transmission of data.

In contrast of the two, a router is a much more complicated device; it can find the best possible pathway from A to B by communicating with other routers e.g. if a link is broken, it can find its way around it.

Most routers also utilise wireless technology, whereas switches traditionally are wired.

Routers can connect LANs with WANs (such as the Internet) contrary to traditional switches (only LANs)

EXTRA: Hubs are exactly like switches, but, when they receive a data packet they broadcast it to ALL of the ports (which is why they are called 'dumb devices'.. they are mostly replaced by switches nowadays)

Hubs > Switches > Routers

Q: Who are the users, and who are the participants, of an information system? Give examples [general question]
 
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seremify007

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Takuto said:
woah, you guys look like you're writing a textbook ,lol

this is meant to be a practice for what you would write in the exam, so dont go too overboard =]
I think this is one of the subjects where it pays to go overboard in the exam (provided you do it using the terminology as opposed to waffling on incorrect stuff).

Sorry for stealing the thread a bit... I'll just repost your question for the next punter :)

Q: Who are the users, and who are the participants, of an information system? Give examples [general question][/QUOTE]
 
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Takuto

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seremify007 said:
I think this is one of the subjects where it pays to go overboard in the exam (provided you do it using the terminology as opposed to waffling on incorrect stuff).

Sorry for stealing the thread a bit... I'll just repost your question for the next punter :)

Q: Who are the users, and who are the participants, of an information system? Give examples [general question]
Oh yeah, I heard the people who top IPT write ALOT. Didn't that priesty guy write like 30 pages to come 1st a couple years back.. INSANEEE

and lol - You can post WHATEVER you want, in fact, thanks for giving us the advice~! What did you come in IPT? Gotta give you props for getting a state rank; good stuff =]

I'm a really slow writer (always last to finish tests) so i cant get in much in the 3 hours. It sucks because i have so much in my head. Oh well, the rest of you guys still have hope
 
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Makro

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I'll give it a go, please correct me wherever I'm wrong.

Users are those affected by the systems. Participants are those who carry out the information processes of a information system. In an retail store example, users are customers who provide the data (i.e. money) and participants are the cashiers.

Fail?
 

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