SmokedSalmon said:I have some Modern Historian quotes for Rammeside Period from Ramses I - Ramses II: Sorry I don't have any others... getting them off my teacher next week. I guess you can come to your own conclusion about what these modern historian's think about each pharaoh.
? "Ramses had been Vizier and the king?s deputy" (Newby)
? "Ramses came from a comparatively obscure military family? in the Delta" (Newby)
? "The choice of Ramses as Horemheb?s successor was based on three qualifications his ability, loyalty and line of heirs" (Bradley)
? "The new pharaoh was deeply concerned/convince that his accession opened a new ear" (Kitchen)
? "The cenetoph of Seti I was something of a political statement. In the temple he established his image as pharaoh" (Newby)
? "Seti?s tomb is the most magnificent in the Valley of the Kings" (Newby)
? "Seti had certainly made it clear that a revival of Egyptian power in the area was underway" (Newby)
? "Seti could now indulge his twin ambition to be the new Thutmose III and a new Amenhotep III all in one" (Kitchen)
? "The decrees of Seti I show the invocation of magic to support law" (Gardiner)
? "When Seti dies?the country was prosperous and firmly administered" (Bradley)
? Ramses is the "symbol of the proud majority of Egypt through the ages" (Kitchen)
? Ramses was the "overadvertised hero of Kadesh, a megabrainiac builder and unbridled despot" (Kitchen)
? "...an unbridled despot, who took advantage of a reign of almost unparalleled length, and of the acquisitions of his father and ancestors, in order to torment his own subjects and strangers to the utmost of his power." (Kitchen)
? "a brash young man...not overburdened with intelligence and singularly lacking in taste... [yet with] tremendous energy and personal magnetism." (William Hayes)
? "Blatant advertising was used to cover up the failure to attain past glories" (Wilson)
? His monuments "attempted to impress by overpowering size, without concern for artistic quality" (Breasted)
? Size and quantity were Rames? "major criteria for artistic effectiveness" (Wilson)
? "Ramses chose administrators wisely and did not hesitate to promote men from outside the narrow aisle of Thebes and Memphis" (Bradley)
? In his temples Ramses "sought to anchor the restored monarchy firmly in centre of the Egyptian religious faith and practice" (Grimal)
? "If a ruler?s greatness be measured by the prosperity, balance and relative contentment of a nations society, then in that sense, Ramses was great" (Hayes and Kitchen)
? "stupid and culpably inefficient general" (Wilson)
Eliza B said: Pharaohs and their image (with particular reference to the �warrior pharaohs�)
The Pharaohs maintained many different images, these images played vital roles within New Kingdom Egypt. These images consisted of; Pharaoh as the Chief Priest of the Gods, Pharaoh as Chief Judge, Pharaoh as Administrator and Pharaoh as a Military/Warrior leader. All of these images were important to uphold Maat in Egypt.
An important image maintained by the Pharaoh was that of chief priest of all the gods. To be high priest was the most important function of the Pharaoh. This role was significant because when the pharaoh maintained a good relationship between the gods and Egypt, Maat was guaranteed. The Pharaoh acted as a channel of divine power, who performed religious rituals. Evidence to support these claims are depicted in wall paintings; validating that the Pharaohs participated in some daily rituals. Of course most of these tasks were carried out by the priests, on behalf of the Pharaoh. These ceremonies and rituals were not accessible to common people. Daily rituals consisted of cleaning, anointing and clothing the image of the god then offering this symbolic figure, food and drink. Religious festivals were also held, an important festival was called the Heb-sed which renewed the Pharaohs powers to rule. This festival was held on the anniversary of the Pharaohs accession. Some examples of Pharaohs who were portrayed having strong bond with Gods were Ahmose and Hatshepsut. After Ahmose�s victory over the Hyksos, he dedicated all his success to Amun. Where as Hatshepsut maintained a strong relationship with Amun and the other gods throughout her co-regencey and rule.
Another role the Pharaohs played was that of chief judge and lawmaker. The Pharaoh�s image in regards to lawmaker, meant that he/she was responsible for maintaining Maat. Maat consisted of the right order of things where nature was in balance and Egypt was prosperous and secure; this was conceived as a state of harmony and good order of gods and humans. Within Egypt there were no written laws, it was therefore the Pharaohs responsibility to govern all the laws. These were done to keep order, righteousness, justice and truth. Symbols of the Pharaohs power and legitimate right to govern; were the crook, flail or mace. Ahmose (the first Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty) embarked on several campaigns merely to restore order and re-establish his authority within Egypt after Hyksos domination.
The Pharaoh also played the role of administrator. The Pharaoh was responsible for everything undertaken in Egypt. The image of administrator was represented as a ruler who ensured that all the land was productive, commerce was profitable and the community shared all of the prosperity. Although this was another important role, the king was detached from the tedious details of administration. The Viziers and officials carried out these duties. The Pharaoh Thutmose 1 established the first administration system in Nubia and appointed a viceroy, after his extensive military campaigns.
The Pharaoh was also a commander in charge of the army and navy. It was the Pharaohs duty to preserve maat by keeping foreign people out of Egypt. Some of the New Kingdom rulers have been referred to as �Warrior Pharaohs�. The first prominent ruler to portray the warrior Pharaoh image was that of Ahmose. He achieved this status from his grand military campaigns that inevitably expelled the Hyksos invaders. Thutmose 1 was a mighty warrior Pharaoh who, extended Egypts conquests far into the north and south. Thutmose 1 undertook vigorous military campaigns and hunted elephants for sport. All of this increased his Warrior image. The daughter of Thutmose 1, Hatshepsut (the first female Pharaoh) considered herself to be a �traditional warrior pharaoh sphinx�, as written in her Speo Artemidos inscription. But many Historians ignore fragmentary evidence to support Hatshepsut�s involvement in a military campaign. Also during Hatshepsut�s reign, there were many years of peace, due to her ancestors victories; thus the warrior Pharaoh image was lost. Thutmose 111, was perhaps the greatest of all the warrior Pharaohs. Thutmose 111 undertook apparently seventeen campaigns which were victorious. This young Pharaoh showed generalship of a high order, making unpopular decisions and being proved right, and planning his attack in such a way that he chose his own ground and left the enemy at a disadvantage. Thutmose 111 has been called �The Napoleon of Ancient Egypt� but with some justice. He was a fantastic fighting general and inspired his successors such as Sethi 1 and Ramesses 11 and 111. Like his successors, Amenhotep 11 was an impressive warrior Pharaoh who undertook many campaigns. Also Thutmose 1V extended Egypts boundaries and increased its power, wealth and greatness.
Roles of Queens from Tetisheri to Hatshepsut
The Queens of the 18th Dynasty played very powerful and influential roles. These included; assisting the Pharaoh with his reign, acting in military campaigns and associating themselves with the gods.
Queen Tetisheri came from non-royal parents (pharaohs usually married princesses and frequently including their own sisters, which preserved family unity). She is also considered by some historians a the founder of the 18th Dynasty. Tetisheri was a woman who initiated the tradition of strong and powerful queens which continued throughout the 18th dynasty. It is suggested that she was the wife of Seqenenre Tao 1 and mother of Seqenenre Tao 11.
Tetisheri was given titles and important roles. She is depicted wearing a vulture headdress and carrying a sceptre. She had many buildings; a Mortuary temple, Chapel, Pyramid, house of Tazeser. Her most important role was assisting the Pharaoh. Tetisheri was very long-lived and during this time aided her husband, her son Seqenenre Tao 11 and her grandson Ahmose in their reigns. Indications of her power are that she carried the symbols of a queen and she had much respect from Ahmose, her grandson. Ahmose makes a dedication to her on his stela at Abydos. Her grandson Ahmose, held Tetisheri in high regard, evidence to suggest this is on Ahmose�s limestone stela at abydos where he dedicates her tributes. Also he built a mortuary building because �he so greatly loved her, beyond everything�.
Queen Ahhotep, was the daughter of Queen Tetisheri and perhaps the wife to Seqenenre Tao 11. She had the title of �Gods wife of Amun� and her tomb was situated at Dira-abou-el-Naga. Ahhotep played a major political role during the unsettled years of Hyksos supremacy. She was thought to be the mother of Ahmose, and may have acted as regent during his first years of reign. Evidence to support her relation to Ahmose, is found on the doorway of a temple at Buhen, her name is inscribed. Also on Ahmose�s karnak stela, he suggests that she may have suppressed a rebellion in Upper Egypt during the Hyksos war. Another piece of evidence to support her military role, perhaps �warrior queen� is a pendant plated in god that has three golden flies. It is thought this was the �gold of valour� given as a reward to achievements in military campaigns. Thus many historians conclude, she acted as a �warrior queen�, assisting her pharaoh in his campaigns.
Ahhotep maintained a strong relationship with the gods and was closely associated with Amun-Re. Ahhotep is depicted with many possessions; a bracelet, chains, mirror, axe, dagger and ship. Ahhotep played a political role throughout her term as Queen, she was also buried near the valley of the kings. Evidence about her was found on Ahmoses stela and in her tomb goods.
Queen Ahmose-Nefertiri held many titles including; �Gods wife of Amun�, �Second prophet of Amun�, �Kings daughter�, �Kings sister�, �Divine consort� and �great wife�. It appears she played an important role during her husband (Ahmose�s) reign. She also lived during her son, Amenhotep�s reign where she was closely linked to the cult of Amenhotep 1 where she may have held a high position. Her buildings were, a mortuary temple and tomb. Her relationship with the gods was strong, she was closely associated with Amun and may have held the title of �second prophet of Amun. Overall Ahmose -Nefertiri had a divine status. She was depicted with prominent front teeth, and is often drawn on some scale as king or god. She had an equal status to her husband and was highly respected by her son.
Queen Hatshepsut, assumed the role of co-regent with Thutmose111 after her husband Thutmose 11 passed away, early into his reign. Hatshepsut (who still remained queen) was a vital assistant to the young Thutmose 111, during her 1st to 8th year as co-regent. She later ascended to become the first female Pharaoh.
Hatshepsut would have played may roles including; that of co-regent governing the land, a warrior queen and a religious figure. The role Hatshepsut would have played as a warrior, would have been from her few military campaigns. There is evidence for a northern campaign, in Hatshepsut�s mortuary temple at Deir-el Bahri. The inscription states �her arrow among northeners� this implies she sent a force to attack these �northerners�. There is also a suggestion by the historian Redford that Hatshepsut also campaigned in Nubia. This is supported by a stela erected that refers to Thutmose 111 slaughtering rhinos in Nubia, once a rebellion had stopped. Hatshepsut�s role as a religious figure was extremely important for Egypt to maintain Maat. She had strongly associate herself with all the gods, especially Amun (the State god). Her Punt expedition was undertaken because Amun commanded her to. Hatshepsut was perhaps the greatest queen of the New kingdom, as she accomplished much, before becoming Pharaoh.
Roles of Viziers, officials and priests
The most powerful positions held by Egyptians were; the Vizier, Officials and High priest of Amun. This group of Egyptians aided the Pharaoh in; governing the country and maintaining maat.
Viziers held the most important position in Egypt, secondary to the Pharaoh. It is possible that there could be two viziers, one of upper Egypt and the other Lower Egypt. viziers were chosen from Egyptian nobility. The power of each vizier always depended on the Pharaohs favour. While the vizier was a servant, he was also of a princely rank and was treated accordingly. But he had to treat everybody equally.
The king instructed the vizier to carry out his wishes. The vizier roles were important to make sure Maat was maintained at all times. Most of the roles included; total control of civil administration, assessed and collected tax, appointed officials, advised the Pharaoh, controlled public work, supervised royal necropolis and maintained records. The vizier had enormous responsibilities for the kings� country to prosper and to maintain the building of new monuments and food supply.
During the 18th dynasty there was a trend towards vizierial independence and inheritance of office was reversed by kings who chose his viziers from among his followers; often men who had proven themselves as military officers. Powerful as the viziers were, they rarely tried to usurp the throne, for reasons which may have been partly due to personal loyalty, social and religious reasons, but certainly also to the balance of power which existed between civil service, priesthood and armed forces during normal times.
The viziers must have led very busy lives, supervising the building of temples, leading quarrying expeditions into the desert and accompanying their pharaoh on his campaigns in addition to their more tedious duties of coordinating the bureaucracy, hearing petitioners, and playing courtier. It is also interesting to note that Viziers and other officials appear to have always been male.
Rekhmire, a vizier under Thutmose 111 and Amenhotep 11 has an inscription on his tomb that details the role of a vizier. With in this, Thutmose 111 emphases that the vizier must stay in the legal guidelines, dispense justice for all, emphasise the truth and make sure the Egyptian people are not shown arrogance's on behalf of the vizier.
The officials presented the Pharaoh and his command. Officials controlled the four major divisions of administration in Egypt; civil government, religious government, administration of the army and navy and royal domains. Each official held a high status and were supported by scribes, priests and village chieftains. The most powerful officials reported directly to the King, they were usually involved in the day to day running of Egypt.
During the rule of the Hyksos, the Egyptian administration wasn�t completely wiped out. Perhaps these foreigners accepted many values and usage's of the surrounding Egyptian society, used it for their own aims and purposes, as taxes had to be levied and justice administered.
Some important officials in the 18 dynasty were; Senenmut and Ineni. Senenmut held many titles and acted as a very high official during the reign of Hatshepsut. He supervised the building of Hatshepsut�s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, temples at Karnak, Luzor, Armant and the creation of obelisks. Ineni it seems was Hatshepsut�s architect and he also was an important official during the reign of her father Thutmose 1.
Priests became very powerful, influential and played a major political role during the 18th Dynasty. In the early New Kingdom priests were supported because of their major allegiance with the Pharaoh. Tributes from conquered land was given to temples which greatly increased the priesthood's wealth. Also priests didn�t have to pay tax. All of this money made was gathered to gain more support for these influential priests.
The priests also acted as a translator for the Pharaoh and the gods. The priests also carried out rituals for particular gods, throughout the day. Most of these were carried out by the priests on the Pharaohs behalf.
The priests were a valuable part of the officials for the Pharaoh, they connected the Pharaoh to the gods and in doing so bought prosperity to the nation.
Roles of Amun and the Amun priesthood
Amun and his priesthood has a significant function in relation to the New Kingdom. They acted together to help the Pharaoh and his servants make Egypt a wealthy, powerful and flourishing nation.
Amun was originally the local god, but as his worship spread to Thebes he became identified with the sun god Re, and was later worshipped as Amun-Re. This was also due to the establishment of the Egyptian rule over foreigners because of the Pharaohs successes. Amun gradually played an important political role. The Pharaohs used Amun to claim divine birth right, so they would have legitimacy to take the throne.
Amun was considered to be the true father of the pharaoh and his crowning was the recognition of the son by his father. Amun was the counsellor of the king, who consulted the god's statue either in his sanctuary or during a procession, with the statue answering by voice or a nod. The private use of the oracle by the king in the role of High Priest strengthened the validity of his decisions by giving them the approval of the gods, while the public oracle was a tool in the hands of the priesthood to achieve their political and social aims.
Amun is usually depicted in human form, but was sometimes depicted with a rams head, or actually as a ram. He wore a ceremonial beard, plaited and curved at the end. He also wore a short kilt with an animal tail, and a tall hat with two ostrich feathers; and when he combined with Re, an solar disc was positioned between those feathers. Amun would hold the ankh and a wooden sceptre, these were symbolic of his power.
Amun�s purpose in the new kingdom was to promote nationalism and imperialism. Certain Pharaohs, Thutmose11 and Thutmose 111 both attributed their victories in battle to Amun�s support. Evidence to uphold these claims comes from the Aswan inscription and Konossos inscription. In turn Amun would reciprocate, and grant the Pharaohs divine sanction. Amun�s divine sanction was important as it functioned as incentive for the common to be confident soldiers during their battles.
The temple at Karnak became the centre of Egyptian's national religion during the New Kingdom. This temple had giant gateways, many open courts and a sanctuary to the gods. This complex was increasingly important during the New kingdom. The wealth gained in victorious campaigns was housed in this complex by the priests. Thutmose 111, the son of Thutmose 11, had grown up in the temple of Amun, first destined for priesthood. Some historians claim that Thutmose 111 was supported by those who feared that a woman (Hatshepsut) couldn't fill the position of king effectively and became involved in the affairs of the army.
The Amun priesthood's role during the New Kingdom was religious and political influence. They had grown considerably in power since the Hyksos domination, their temples were lavished with enormous wealth, power and prestige. The priesthood used legitimacy issues to increase their influence: Thutmose 1, the son of one of Amenhotep's concubines, became king only because of his marriage to the princess Ahmose, daughter of Queen Ahhotep. When Hatshepsut, a daughter of his and Ahmose, survived into adulthood, he was asked to resign in her favour, which he did in front of his court and the priesthood of Amun. Thutmose 11, his son by a concubine who followed him in the list of kings, did so thanks to his marriage to Hatshepsut, the legitimate heiress.
The priesthood also carried out rituals in the Karnak Temple to emphasize the Pharaohs relationship with Amun. The high priest represented the Pharaoh within the temple. He was usually noble, hand picked by the Pharaoh. Although the Pharaoh also had the power to appoint a new high priest. It is also common for the high priest to become vizier; for example Hapusoneb was the First Prophet of Amun who first became administrator of the temple's wealth and the head of all the gods' priests of Upper and Lower Egypt and finally prefect of Thebes and vizier. Also Ptahmose, was high priest during Amenhotep 111�s reign before becoming vizier too.
The high priest was exceptionally influential and wealthy, and also held power over all the other temples and priesthood. The priesthood were a valuable part of the officials for the Pharaoh, as they gave the nation strength to over throw the foreigners (Hyksos) and in doing so brought tributes to gain the gods approval and thus Egypt was prosperous.
Eliza B said:Amenhotep III
He reaped the benefits from the conquests of his predecessor, Thutmose II, Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV. Amenhotep III ruled his empire through diplomacy rather than force. he communicated and exchanged gifts with the great kings of Babylon. Incredible wealth poured into Egypt which enabled him to initiate a great building program. He dedicated vast wealth to the god Amun. Amenhotep II built temples at Karnak and Luxor. It was a time of artistic flowering, court life was fashionable and elegant. He was supported by his great royal wife Tiye who also has an influence on the government of Egypt.
Came from established line of powerful kings, inherited a stable country
Son of Thutmose IV and Queen Mutemweya. Thutmose IV died when Amenhotep was only 12. Mutemweya probably acted as regent. Amenhotep had a close relationship with his mother.
Strong influential queen Tiye, non royal background.
After Amenhotep's accession to throne, part of his coronation ceremony was to marry Tiye. This event has commemorative Scarabs made.
Breasted "This was the first time a Queen's name was inserted into the royal titulary"
Many historians emphasized that marriage scarabs show Tiyes non royal background
Amenhotep honored Tiyes parents by allowing them to be buried in richly endowed tomb in the valley of the kings. Queen Tiye portrayed as having exotic appearance which leads historians to believe her family came from Nubia. Amenhotep was rarely represented without Tiye. She was often depicted on the same level as her husband.
Amenhotep also trusted her imput in state matters. Amenhotep publicly honored Tiye who was described "lady of delight". Year 11 he constructed a pleasure lake for Tiye in her city of Djaruka. It is believed they had 7 children, the heir died and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) became heir.
EVIDENCE - from the Amarna Letters says Tiye played an active role in diplomatic affairs. Foreign rulers directly wrote to her. When Amenhotep died the Mitanni king wrote to Tiye requesting Egypt and their good relations stay the same indicating respect for Tiye.
Children include; Sitamun, Baketaten, Amenhotep IV
Married numerous foreign princesses
Status of the King
Celebrated 3 jubilees which suggest a long peaceful reign
Shown as sportsman, typical warrior pharaoh despite the lack of wars
Diplomatic marriages hint at Egypt being dominate partner
Presented the pharaohs image was an important task
Image of a warrior pharaoh was the most important. Amenhotep presented himself in reliefs as " Superhuman, all conquering warrior king"
Also focussed on the hunter image as evident from commemorative scarabs. These scarabs portrayed Amenhotep to the world.
In the New kingdom it was important to expand borders, during his reign "extending the borders of Egypt was over". Therefore Amenhotep couldn't present this "warrior pharaoh" image the way his predecessors did.
This is why he exaggerated some campaigns e.g. 5th years raids in southern Egypt were turned into a giant defeat.
Marriage scarabs describe him as "smitter of Asiatics"
Victory tablets in mortuary temple
Stela, first cataract depicts Amenhotep killing Nubians
Therefore, Amenhotep never actually lead an army to smite enemies, but it was important that he keep that image as it maintains maat.
International diplomacy was carried out
EVIDENCE- Amarna letters show marriages and contact between kings
It was a relationship between Amenhotep and "brother kings". These treaties of friendship provided for assistance against attack by a third party, but forbade a vassal ruler to support an attack against the king Amenhotep.
Amenhotep III ruled his empire from a position of great advantage. the battles had been won, the treaties and alliances made and the administration of the empire established before he came to throne. His role was to maintain and protect what already existed.
Although there were no military campaigns, Amenhotep maintained an army and forts and garrisons throughout the empire
No more need for war, empire controlled through diplomacy - marriage, letters, gifts
Egypt seems dominant partner, no princesses sent from Egypt
Complacency over foreign affairs - rising of the Hittites
Amenhotep governed his empire through a policy of diplomacy
Communicated by letter to great kings; Mitanni, Babylon
negotiated alliances with rulers
Added foreign princess to royal harem
exchanged gifts with brother kings
Employed highly trusted envoys to travel to east
Lettered were used by vassal princes, extensive flattery, and complaints. This communication negotiated marriages.
Diplomatic marriages were done for two reasons
maintain friendly relations
obtaining luxury goods
Foreign princesses were sent to Egypt with rich dowry. The regular exchange of gifts between kings was also expected. No records suggest Egyptian princesses were given to foreign kings
"Never has the daughter of an Egyptian King been given to anyone."
Harem was the women Amenhotep married for diplomatic reasons, yet this didn't affect Tiyes status. Large sums of gold was handed over from foreign kings. A full harem increased Amenhotep's power and status.
It was not until the end of his reign that the Hittite King Suppiluliumash began to challenge the established balance of power. Future Pharaohs had to deal with the full force of this new conqueror.
Foreign policy bought more foreigners and trade to Egypt. From this Egyptians learned skills of foreign artisans, craft influence from the east.
It appears Amenhotep ran a well governed Egypt. The bureaucracy ran smoothly under the supervision of the viziers, public works were maintained and a massive building program undertaken
Brilliant officials helped maintain the countries status e.g. Ramose, Amenhotep son Hapu. Large numbers of chief officials came from lower Egypt. First part of his reign was in the capital of Memphis the moved to Thebes and officials accompanied him. Vizier Ramose was responsible for the day to day running of the vast palace complex. Scribe of recruits was Amenhotep son of Hapu, who was in charge of all countries manpower. High priest of Amun was Ptahmose he was vizier before becoming high priest.
The influence and wealth of these officials is reflected in the size and richness of their tombs
Established trade/tribute system meant large incoming wealth from western Asia, Nubia, Aegean
His rule provided almost 40 years of peace and at the same time the Egyptians enjoyed the benefits from earlier conquests; taxes, tribute, slaves and labour force.
EVIDENCE from tombs gives an impression of the great prosperity achieved during Amenhotep's reign
Amenhotep III's building program, surpassed that of any of his predecessors in both quantity and quality. He began his building program early in his reign.
Shows wealth, power and control to embark on such extensive building programs
Shows dedication to Amun, Thebes and other gods
e.g Karnak pylon, Malkata Palace, Mortuary Temple, Temple of Luxor
Amenhotep III reign was the height of prosperity due to trade and tribute boom. This enabled Amenhotep to develop one of the greatest building programs.
Enormous size and massive sanctuary
Lavish rich materials
quality in design and workmanship
Temple of Luxor
Regarded as greatest building achievement. Designed by Suti and Hor for Opet festival the temple is built out of sandstone, decorated with gold. The building was unfinished at the end of Amenhotep's reign.
Inner sanctuary, statues of Amun
Reliefs depicting divine birth of Amenhotep III
Third pylon at Karnak
Amenhotep III created great gateways built for the temple of Amun at Karnak. He also built canals from the Nile that were 20 years later covered by Seti and Ramesses
Amenhotep Mortuary Temple
Regarded as being the most impressive temple ever built in western Thebes. Two enormous statues of the king himself stood over the entrance.
EVIDENCE -inscription from the building stela has a description of its splendor and wealth.
When he moved his residence from Memphis to Thebes he built a new palace on the west bank of the Nile. It was a vast complex stretching 32 hectares. The buildings were one of three storeys, made from mud brick
Amenhotep emphasized his relationship with the gods to ensure their protection in the next life, he honoured them trough monuments benefactions.
Arts and crafts
High standard of excellence, high quality of materials, and workmanship
shows peaceful country that allowed for artistic development
New style of art appearing suggests intellectual development, perhaps made possible by peace/prosperity
Amenhotep's reign reached "zenith of magnificence" as the borders secured the kingship could flourish in artistic greatness. There were two forms of art; traditional and naturalism. Naturalism in art appeared in statues, tomb reliefs and jewelry. It was not at exaggerated as the Amarna Period.
Suggestions of problems
No force lead to complacency over foreign affairs and allowed the rise of northern powers
Promotion of the Aten may indicate problems. Aten is a link to earlier kings who has absolute power. Perhaps the power of the Amun priesthood was threatening the kings power. Amenhotep showed devotion to Amun, yet began to promote the sun god Aten "dazzling sun disc". Maybe this was diminish the power of the Amun Priesthood.
Image of Amenhotep as fat, lethargic, while this suggests a prosperous reign, it may not have been the image expected of a Pharaoh.
When Amenhotep III died he took with him an Egypt of political and religious certainties, a state that had regained strength and respect at home and abroad.
Redford "Amenhotep III and the Egypt he ruled never had been, nor would again, in such a position of absolute power in the world"
Grimal "When Amenhotep died he took with him an Egypt of political and religious certainties, as state that had regained strength and respect at home and a broad"
Thanks alot angel!! Thats a great help!angelduck said:Heya peeps, this wasn't my final summary, but i cant put that one up as i gave all my ancient notes to a friend for his HSC. I hope this helps u guyz in ur midcourses!
"Her arrow was amongst the Northerners,"matty_smiles said:could be a little late to post this but maybe someone from current year 12 will get this there was never any hard evidence if Hatshepsut ever led military campaigns herself, mainly because during her regency/co-regency with Thutmose III she gave control of the army to him. So in your answers you can show that both the Palestine and Nubian areas were kept subdued during this time, so that is some evidence to show that she might have made a campaign. You can like this to the deliberate removal of her name from all public places shortly after her death.