• YOU can help the next generation of students in the community!
    Share your trial papers and notes on our Notes & Resources page

How much depth do i need to know? (1 Viewer)


将来: NEET
Sep 6, 2014
Can someone check if these info are lacking or not thanks

Polypetide synthesis
Transcription: DNA -> mRNA
1. DNA unwinds and unzips in nucleus
2. RNA polymerase links complementary RNA nucleotides to the
unwound DNA – forming an mRNA strand
3. mRNA strand is modified so that it contains only exons (regions
that code for proteins)
4. mRNA moves from the nucleus of the cell into the cytoplasm
• Translation: mRNA + tRNA -> polypeptide -> protein
1. mRNA binds to a ribosome
2. tRNA carrying anticodons binds to mRNA’s codons
3. A polypeptide chain is formed until a ’stop’ codon is reached
4. Newly formed polypeptide chain is released into the cytoplasm

Transgenic species
1. Isolate useful gene using restriction enzymes
2. Insert new gene into the cell of an organism, using a vector
3. Anneal the sticky ends using the enzyme DNA ligase
4. Allow the cell to develop

I'm not sure how in depth i'm supposed to know for the beadle/tatum experiment, Morgan's experiment and process of DNA replication, would appreciate it if someone helps me out on that too


The pessimistic optimist.
Jul 11, 2012
l'appel du vide
Uni Grad
I'd recommend you have a bit more information on Polypetide synthesis


HSCya Later ***erator
Nov 16, 2014
Awesome info, but I would elaborate just a tad bit more on translation in your polypeptide/protein synthesis notes.
Ensure, by the way, that you mention that when the mRNA strand is synthesised by RNA polymerase that the RNA base nucleotide only contain Uracil and not Thymine!

This is how I would structure my notes for translation:
• Once the mRNA strand has only exons remaining (base sequence that will allow for the coding of the polypeptide chain), it is then moved out into the cytoplasm and will bind on to a ribosome
Translation now begins
• Transfer-RNA molecules (tRNA) are prompted by the triplet start codon on the mRNA strand (e.g. AUG) and begin to deliver the complementary anticodon nucleotides that correspond to the mRNA base sequence codons, and also bring in amino acids
• These anticodons are sourced from the cytoplasm
• As one tRNA molecule leaves to gather more amino acids and anticodons, another tRNA molecule arrives and it's amino acid links on to the previous tRNA molecules amino acid (which was left behind) to form a peptide chain.
• The polypeptide chain is completed after this process meets an mRNA stop codon, signalling for the cessation of tRNA amino acid delivery
This chain is then wound up along with many other polypeptide chains in a specific formation to produce a function protein.

This video will summarise and clarify everything about polypeptide synthesis for you! :)

In regards to Beadle/Tatum.....

You should be able to outline their experiment briefly, as well as highlight their hypothesis and why it was altered - explaining this using their experimental results. This just lets the markers know that you are aware of the specificity of genes and gene expression and the effect of mutagens on our DNA.

In regards to Morgan's experiment.....

Though this hardly comes up in high mark questions, it is really crucial that you understands how this ties in to our increasing understanding of inheritance, the genetic "factors" (alleles as we know) that Mendel discussed in his publication and sex linkage.
You need to know that:
• Morgan used fruit flies (easy to breed and distinguish sex), breeding white-eyed males with red-eyed females
• An F1 generation was produced, with 100% of all offspring possessing red eyes - red eyes thus considered a dominant trait
• However further breeding of the F1 generation together, led to the existence of the F2 generation
• The F2 generation showcased only red-eyed females, but males were white and red-eyed.
• This led to Morgan correctly identifying that the gene coding for white-eye colour expression was located only on the X chromosome of the fruit flies, which was confirmed in later experiments.

In regards to DNA replication....

You gotta know it pretty darn well to be honest! It is important to understand how it plays a role in the maintenance of our health, continuation of a species and is the backbone for meiosis and mitosis. I can go into detail on how I would explain it if you'd like.

Hope it helps!

- Jimmy
Last edited:

Users Who Are Viewing This Thread (Users: 0, Guests: 1)