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ari89

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ari89

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Re: Free Rome/caesar Notes For Hsc

Outline Caesar’s reforms


Although between the period of 49-44BC Caesar spent little time in Rome, during his brief appearances he initiated a large number of legislative and administrative reforms. He pushed through a large number of senatorial decrees and laws dealing with such things as the reorganisation of the local government of Italian towns, the length of tenure of provincial governors, the reduction in the number of Romans receiving free grain, penalties for criminal offences, the ratio of free labourers to slaves on large estates, traffic congestion in the Forum, the composition of the law courts, reform of the calendar and even the restriction of luxury displayed by nobility. However, his most important initiative was the founding of colonies outside Italy and the extension of Roman citizenship to provincials.

In 49 Caesar granted franchise to the area of Transalpine Gaul. He enfranchised a Gallic legion en masse and granted full Roman citizenship to certain provincial towns. This provided Caesar with more support from people who he provided the vote too. Also, the granting of Roman citizenship to provincials allowed for a patron-client relationship to occur where people supported each other in exchange for protection etc.

Caesar also promoted overseas colonies not just for his veterans but also for the urban poor. These colonies were in places such as Carthage and Corinth that received a rebirth because of this. Through this Caesar had effectively introduced Romanisation of the empire. This reform is seen as Caesar’s most statesmen like act.

He also made reformed the financial ways of the empire. He replenished the treasury by penalties extracted from rebels. He even modified the taxation system to eliminate the need of selfish tax collectors. To represent the provinces he even took the unpopular measure of enrolling provincials from Gaul and Spain into the senate.

The senate was also increased to 900 men. The number of quaestors was increased from 20 to 40, aediles from 4 to 6 and praetors from 8 to 16. By doing this the distribution of power under him great so that one man could not rival his power and support. He also increased the pay of soldiers greatly while providing them with extra bonuses such as bounties and pensions. This was popular because it allowed him to keep the support and loyalty of his armies and even attract more supporters.

For the city he began to extend the forum and pave it. He planned on creating a Basilica, a vast library and he even planned to drain marshes, improve the cities drainage and build new roads. This increased his popularity in Rome since they were directly being provided with tangible benefits. He also attempted to promote the release of slaves by making at least one third of the estate be free men labourers not slaves. This also helped avoid another slave revolt like the one tackled by Pompey earlier.

He even reformed the calendar of Rome called the Julian calendar. This calendar is even in use today and was developed mathematically. He also equalled out the composition of the courts providing more opportunities for the equites to have their say. The penalties for criminal offences were increased to keep strict controls over the Roman people and avoid rioting resulting from the corn dole.

He also passed a variety of miscellaneous laws varying from the suppression of private clubs, passing measures to relieve debt and to protect creditors from incurring heavy losses. He even passed laws against mass amounts of luxury being shown off.
 

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Re: Free Rome/caesar Notes For Hsc

Assess Caesar’s success in his Gallic campaigns


After Caesar’s consulship of 59, in 58 he became governor of Gaul and took command of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum for a period of 5 years. By taking up these areas he was provided with: soldiers since the Po valley was a good recruiting ground for troops. He also gained clients by proposing full citizenship to them. By being stationed in Cisalpine Gaul, the close proximity allowed Caesar to be close and able to keep a close eye on the events happening in Rome. In Transalpine Gaul Caesar was given the opportunity to win military glory and extent the influence of Rome because of the disturbances among the Gaul’s. Invading Transalpine Gaul also provided Caesar with great wealth that he would need to finance his future career.

In the two year period of 58-56, Caesar defeated the Helvetii and the Suebi. Caesar took advantage of these opportunities. With the Helvetii 400 000 Gallic people where migrating through the northern corner of the province. Caesar saw this as an opportunity to gain propoganda so he provoked a war and defeated the Helvetii forcing them to return to their home land. This situation is similar to Caesar turning on his old allies, the Suebi people. Caesar saw the opportunity for a spectacular campaign so he drove the Germans back beyond the Rhine. During these campaigns Caesar revealed his thirst for military glory and prominence among the people of Rome.

In Gaul Rome was faced with a legitimate problem. An armed force of Belgian Gauls was preparing an attempt to expel the Romans from Gaul. Caesar took the offensive and protected the tribes who had earlier subdued to Rome.

During the period of 58-56 Caesar benefited from his Gallic campaigns. Firstly, Caesar’s reputation was enhanced in both Rome and Gaul. The Romans were now the masters of Gaul and had become the protector of the Gallic people. With such large lands being conquered Caesar’s intention of annexing the land to create clients states (such as Pompey did in the east) was apparent. Also, the large amounts of war booty to send to the treasury created excitement in Rome. In this time it is also believed that Pompey became jealous of Caesar’s popularity.

In the winter of 55 two German tribes crossed the Rhine into Gaul. Caesar took harsh action and exterminated both tribes, including the women and children. This harsh treatment towards the Germans was denounced in the senate by many including Cato. Caesar argued that he showed such harsh action in order to make an example out of the invaders. This technique proved useful since the Germans did not disturb Gaul again.

In 54 Caesar crossed the British Channel to explore Britain as a trade partner of Rome. Meaning he was searching for the prospect of tributes and booty to send back to Rome. That year he defeated the Britons commander-in-chief and took over the kings capital. The tribes then submitted to Caesar and even promised tributes. However, Caesar returned back to Gaul. By crossing to the island of Britain his reputation was enhanced in the eyes of the Romans. He had journeys to an unexplored territory and defeated their king. This exploit also created interest for trade between Britain and Rome, however it did not eventuate until 100 years later.

During the time of 54-51 Caesar and his Gallic campaigns faced trouble. A Belgic tribe organised a surprise attack on a Roman garrison. This resulted in a loss of one and a half of Caesar’s legions. Caesar reacted swiftly and crushed the revolt, however discontent spread among the Gauls. In 52 Caesar faced his greatest threat when many tribes united under the leadership of Vercingetorix. This threatened Caesar’s ability to control the people and at one stage the capital was threatened. However, after a series of Roman victories the Gauls were besieged in a fortress and starved into submission. Even though the Romans were victor over the Gallic people, they were by no means pacified so Caesar spent 51-50 subduing remnants of the rebels and organising the government of the province.

By 51, the Gallic war which had lasted for more than 8 years was over. In that time it is believed that in 30 battles Caesar had captured a million men, killed over a million and captured more than 800 towns. By the end of his campaigns, Caesar had built up a great military reputation to equal that of Pompey and has the support of a devoted army. It had also provided him with the wealth needed to buy political supporters in Rome and he also gained the future support of Gaul during the subsequent civil war.

For the Roman people Caesar’s campaigns had increased Rome’s strength by adding to it an area twice the size of Italy, with a greater population than Spain and offering vast resources. To the Gallic people it promised future peace and protection from the Germans. It also opened the land of the Gauls to Roman civilisation and the Romanisation of the area. Overall, Caesar’s 8 year campaigns in Gaul were a military and administrative success to himself, the people of Rome and even the Gallic people.S
 

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Re: Free Rome/caesar Notes For Hsc

Julius Caesar Questions:


2002 HSC EXAMINATION:


Question 11 – Option K – Rome: Julius Caesar (25 Marks) Marks


a)Describe the family background of Julius Caesar. 5

b)Explain the reasons for the military achievements of Julius B]10[/B]
Caesar.

c)Evaluate the ancient or modern interpretations of Julius Caesar. 10



2003 HSC EXAMINATION:


Question 11 – Option K – Rome: Julius Caesar (25 Marks) Marks



a)Outline the social position of Julius Caesar. 5

b)Explain the reasons for Caesar’s success in the Gallic Wars. 10

c) With reference to sources, assess the achievements of Julius 10
Caesar




2004 HSC EXAMINATION:


Question 11 – Option K – Rome: Julius Caesar (25 Marks) Marks

a)Briefly explain Julius Caesar’s rise to prominence. 5

b)Explain the manner and impact of Julius Caesar’s death. 10

c) With reference to sources, evaluate the influence of Julius 10
Caesar in his lifetime.



2005 HSC EXAMINATION:


Question 11 – Option K – Rome: Julius Caesar (25 Marks) Marks

a) Briefly describe the early career of Julius Caesar. 5

b)Explain Caesar’s relationship with the senate. 10

c) With reference to sources, assess the achievements of 10
Julius Caesar as a general.


NON-HSC Questions (From trials and sample papers etc.)


2003 ARC Paper

25 Marks


a) Briefly describe the early career of Julius Caesar. 5

b) Explain why Julius Caesar was murdered in 44BC. 8

c) Using relevant modern and ancient sources assess the achievements 12
of Julius Caesar both in his own life time and beyond.


2002 HSC Trial Examination: ITE

25 Marks

a) Briefly describe how Caesar’s family background contributed to 5
his early career.

b) With reference to sources, explain Caesar’s role in the civil wars. 8

c) Assess the ancient and modern interpretations of Caesar. 12


HSC Trial Examination: ITE

25 Marks


a) Briefly describe the early political career of Julius Caesar. 5

b) Explain the role and responsibilities of Caesar in the ‘Triumvirate’. 10

c) With reference to the sources, assess the achievements of Julius Caesar. 10


2004 HSC Trial Examination: ITE

25 Marks


a) Briefly describe Caesar’s education as a patrician. 5

b) Explain the importance of Caesar’s dictatorship. 10

c) With reference to sources, assess the strengths and weaknesses 10
of Julius Caesar’s character.
 
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Re: Free Rome/caesar Notes For Hsc

Julius Caesar 5 Mark questions



a)[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Describe the family background of Julius Caesar. (5 marks)

Julius Caesar was born into a well-known, yet not too important, patrician family, the Julii. According to Caesar his family not only had connections to the ancient kings of Rome but also to the gods, namely Venus. Since his family had not held important magistracies such as Consul, Caesar used his legendary ancestry to show he was a leader by blood. Also, Caesar’s father held the magistracy of Praetor. This lack of political influence was mainly due because Caesar’s family was not rich by the standards of Roman nobility and therefore may not have had a large client population. Caesar’s family background included being the nephew of Marius, enemy of Sulla who during Caesar’s youth brought proscription against him. His relationship to Marius lead him to inherit the populares side of Roman politics and to have reflected many of Marius’ qualities for Seutonius records Sulla once saying, “for in this one Caesar, you will find many a Marius.”



b)[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Briefly describe the early career of Julius Caesar. (5 marks)

Julius Caesar’s early career spanned from 81BC where he served on the staff of praetor Marcus Thermus in Asian-Minor to 59BC prior to his consulship. Caesar’s early career was varied. His career included military aspects such as serving under the king of Bithynia where he won the civic crow for bravery. He also served as a criminal lawyer from 78 to 75 rather than heading straight into politics even though the immediate threat of Sulla was gone. He also took command of a private army to support Lucullus against Mithridates by protecting some towns. He then went into a political career where he served as quaestor in 68, aedile in 65 where his popularity increased by holding spectacular games for the people and even praetor in 62. His career also included becoming head of Roman religious life when he was elected Pontifex Maximus. Caesar became governor of Baetica in 61 where his career took a turning point demonstrated through Caesar’s career as a general in the Spanish War. As can be seen, Caesar enjoyed a varied early career ranging from politics to religion to war.
[FONT=&quot]
[/FONT]
c)[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Explain the role and responsibilities of Caesar in the ‘Triumvirate’ (10 marks)

The ‘First Triumvirate’ was the formation and coming together of Caesar, Crassus and Pompey in a mutual relationship to assist each others aims. Or as Livy said, it was “a conspiracy against the state by its 3 leading citizens.” In the ‘First Triumvirate’ Caesar had a role and responsibilities towards the other members. Prior to its formation Crassus helped Caesar secure his command in the Spanish War so it is generally believed that Caesar owed him a moral responsibility even though he had already paid back his financial debt.
The formation of the ‘triumvirate’ came with an understanding that all could gain something from the alliance so together they planned to secretly run the republic and make no step without consideration of another member. Pompey required land that he had promised his soldiers however he could not get hold of it to supply to them. So Caesar got an Agrarian law passed through the senate which distributed land to the urban poor, but more importantly to Caesar, Pompey’s soldiers.
Caesar used the triumvirate to gain commands of the roman provinces of Cisalpine Gaul, Illyricum, and Transalpine Gaul for the years of 58BC to 54BC. Caesar was also granted proconsul powers.

[FONT=&quot]FINSIH THIS QUESTION OFF BY LOOKIN AT THE BOOKS PART ON THE TRIUMVIRATE![/FONT]
 

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Re: Free Rome/caesar Notes For Hsc

The Fall of the Republic: 78-31BC


3. Fall of the Republic
– Impact of Caesar’s assassination
– Formation, activities and breakdown of the Second Triumvirate

Rivalry and Civil War between Mark Antony and Octavian: role of Cleopatra VII; Battle of Actium



Background to the Second Triumvirate


Marc Antony


Background:

  • Caesar’s political heir
  • Served in the Civil War with Caesar (44)
  • Consul
After Caeasar’s Death


  • Gained support of Lepidus and his troops
  • Obtained Caesar’s will
  • Read Caesar’s will and held a funeral oration
    • Pledged money and use of public gardens to plebs
    • “Wave of affection for Caesar and a powerful sense of his loss swept over the people Plutarch
    • Serious rioting broke out – conspirators fled
  • Antony was left in complete control of Rome
    • Eliminated dictatorship from constituion
    • Made Lepidus Pontifex Maximus and persuaded him to go to Spain
    • Gave Caesar’s veterans land
    • Recalled exiled men he favoured
    • Extended proconsul command – against Caesar’s laws
    • Lengthened provincial governorship
    • Took Italy, Gaul and Macedonia as his provinces
  • Cicero – believed Antony should have also been murdered
    • “Twas a fine deed but half done”
Gaius Octavius – Octavian


Background


  • Mother Atia was the niece of Julius Caesar
  • Elected to college of Pontifex by Caesar
  • Caesar’s adopted son and heir



After Caesar’s Death


  • Moved to Italy
    • Welcomed by Caesar’s veterans and friends
  • Antony blocked Octavians attempt to have his adoption made valid
    • Antony refused to hand over Caesar’s money
  • Paid Plebians – honouring Caesar’s will (75 Denarii)
    • Won great popularity
  • Antony was pissed off at favouritism Caesar showed
Situation


·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Cicero
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Returned to Rome to lead senate against Antony
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Attacked Antony as would-be Tyrant (Phillipics speeches)
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Brutus
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Left to east to raise troops
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Antony
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Took Brutus’ Gallic provinces
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Laid siege to Brutus at Mutina
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Octavian
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Appealed to Caesar’s veterans and took 2 of Antony’s legions

·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Cicero
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Used Octavian for Republican cause against Antony
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Legalise Octavian position by granting propraetorian imperium

·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Senate
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Ordered Antony to leave Cisalpine Gaul – he refused
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Consuls and Octavian marched against him
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Antony defeated in 2 engagements and fled to Transalpine Gaul
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Both consuls killed leaving Octavian in sole command

Octavian’s First Consulship 43BC


·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]The senate believed they were free from Antony’s threat so they tried to set Octavian aside

·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Antony’s position had been strengthened by the addition of Lepidus and other commanders from Spain and Gaul
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Octavian realised that if Antony was defeated the party who supported his fathers assasins would gain control of the state
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Make it hard for him to honour his duty to take vengeance out on them
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Octavian refused to co-operate with Brutus against Antony in Transalpine Gaul and refused to surrender his legions
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Demanded consulship
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Help him gain a leadership position with the Caesarian’s
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Republican cause in Gaul collapsed
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Brutus was deserted by his legions and was killed escaping to Macedon
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Senate and Cicero continued to reject Octavian’s demands
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Sent 400 centurions to Rome to demand that their commander be given the consulship – this was resisted
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Marched to Rome with his legions, seized treasurey and made arrangements for consulship elections
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Cousin elected- revoked laws outlawing Antony, legalised Octavian’s adoption and set up court to try Caesar’s assassins

The Second Triumvirate


Antony, Lepidus and Octavian had a meeting to reconcile and determine their immediate futures. Then they marched on Rome.

  • On the 27th of November 43BC the tribal assembly legalised the Second Triumvirate. The Second Triumvirate was the official political alliance of Octavian", Lepidus, and Antony.
    • Officially known as “Triumviri Republicae Constituendae”
    • 5 years long
  • Purpose of the Second Triumvirate
    • To set the state in order and to attack te republican armies of Brutus and Cassius in the east
  • Powers of Triumvirs
    • Absolute – they had the powers of the dictator without the name
    • Right to nominate all magistrates in advance
  • Territory
    • Antony – Transalpine and Cisalpine Gaul
    • Lepidus – Narbonese Gaul and Spain
    • Octavian – Africa, Sicily and Sardinia
  • Proscription
    • Savage campaign of murders similar to that of Sulla
    • To confiscate estates to gain money and land for their troops
    • Destroy their enemies
    • 300 Senators, including Cicero, and 2000 equites were murdered
  • Other Activities
    • Deified Caesar
    • Lepidus became of 42
    • Preparations made to Antony and Octavian to face Brutus and Cassius
The Battle of Philippi, 42BC


·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Brutus and Cassius marched with 19 legions and took up positions at Philippi and Macedonia to face Antony and Octavian who had 28 legions
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Republicans defeated in 2 engagements
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Cassius and Brutus took their own lives
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Antony was given credit since Octavian was ill and took little part

Result of Republican defeat


·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Marked the end of the republican party as most of the leaders had died fighting
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Octavian had avenged the murder of his father
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Triumvirs divided the empire between them
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Antony
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Gaul
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Took most legions to the east to settle the provinces and bring back money
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Octavian
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Spain, Sardinia and Africa
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Returned to Italy to settle veterans
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Dealt with Sextus Pompeiius
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Lepidus
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Given Africa
§[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Minor partner in triumvirate

·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Octavian in the west, Lepidus in Africa, Antony in the east
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]40 – Treaty of Brundisium
·[FONT=&quot] [/FONT]Triumvirs were reconciled – Antony was to marry Octavia, Octavian’s sister (Fulvia had died in conflict with Octavian), and a further division of the empire was carried out
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Octavian controlled all provinces west of Illyricum except Africa
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Lepidus retained Africa
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Antony controlled all provinces eastwards from Macedonia and Cyrenaica,
[FONT=&quot]o[FONT=&quot] [/FONT][/FONT]Italy was shared

  • 39 – Treaty of Misenum
    • Sextus Pompeius demanded a share in the control of the empire, since he occupied Sicily and Sardinia and could interfere with the corn trade
    • He was given control of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and Achaea as proconsul for 5 years

  • 37 – A conference at Tarentum
    • Octavian wanted more ships from Antony for his war against Sextus Pompeius
    • Antony wanted 20 000 soldiers from Octavian for his war against the Parthians
    • An agreement was made, but Octavian did not fulfill his part
    • Lepidus was persuaded to help Octavian
    • The triumvirate was renewed for a further 5 years
  • 33 – The end of the triumvirate
    • Removal of Lepidus weakened the triumvirate
    • Lepidus was deposed from the Triumvirate but remained Pontifex Maximus
    • But it was Antony’s treatment of Octavia (in recognising Cleopatra as his wife) which severed the alliance
    • War between the 2 was inevitable
    • Contents of Antony’s will was read out, war was declared on Cleopatra. Antony recognised Ptolemy Caesar as the true son of Julius Caesar and horrified the Romans by instructing to send his body to Alexandria to be buried, if he should die in Rome

The Victory of Octavian over Antony and Cleopatra

The Battle of Actium, 31


  • Cleopatra and Antony escaped by sea to Alexandria while Antony’s troops surrendered to Octavian.
    • Octavian was hailed as Imperator for the sixth time
    • Agrippa demobilised and settled men in Octavian and Antony’s army who had served a long time
    • 30 – Octavian invaded Egypt, Antony committed suicide.
The End
 

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Re: Free Rome/caesar Notes For Hsc


Topic: Fall of the Republic, 78 – 31BC Option: M
Question: Assess the early career of Pompey Marks: 25
Syllabus: - Pompey: significance of military and political career
- Pompey’s extraordinary commands and the Eastern Settlements


Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey (the Great) was an extraordinary Roman commander in the late republic. For over 3 decades from 83-48BC, Pompey dominated the Roman state. The ancient historian Sallust described Pompey’s early career, “[Pompey’s] pursuit of glory, as they say, always took an unlikely or unusual course.” Pompey’s rise to power was spectacular and rapid, and throughout his career he was granted the most extraordinary powers by the senate and the people to save the state from both internal and external threats.

Pompey’s rise to power began in 83BC where at only the age of 23 he had raised his own private army to aid Sulla. Pompey was then granted propraetorian Imperium to command his forces without having ever held any public office and being far below the requisite age. For such a young man to be awarded office and have the resources to raise and fund an army, Pompey must have been of exceptional ability with a notable amount of wealth. In this time, according to Plutarch, Sulla even hailed Pompey ‘Imperator’ reflecting the success achieved by Pompey as a soldier and commander. While still holding his Propraetorian imperium, Pompey waged war against the Marians from 82-80BC in Sicily and Africa. On his return in 80BC Pompey demanded a triumph and Sulla reluctantly gave in. So by the age of only 26 Pompey received his first of many triumphs.

In 77BC events “seemed to call for Pompey” (Plutarch). When Lepidus, proconsul of Gaul, raised an army and prepared to march on Rome with his legate Brutus. Plutarch states that Pompey “attached himself to the cause of nobility”. The senate declared Lepidus a public enemy and reluctantly granted Pompey propraetorian imperium for a second time. Catalus, who Pompey was sent to aid, defeated Lepidus and Pompey besieged Brutus who surrendered to him. Though Lepidus and Brutus were defeated, the threat remained because Lepidus supporters joined the “Outstanding rebel leader, Sertorius” (Pamela Bradley). Pompey saw this as an opportunity to enhance his reputation and glory so in the hope of persuading the senate to send him to Spain to assist Metellus against Sertorius, he delayed disbanding his army. Since the consuls of the year(77) did not wish to face sartorius, the senate granted Pompey command with proconsular imperium.

With his illegal proconsular powers Pompey arrived in Spain in 76 to help Metellus. However, Pompey lost two major battles against Sertorius in 76 and 75. Pompey requested reinforcements from the senate, allowing him to further pressure Sertorius who was having trouble maintaining the loyalty of his Spanish allies. We are alos told by Plutarch that many of the Romans who joined Sertorius after the Lepidus Revolt became “foolishly resentful of his [Sertorius’] authority.” Because of this Sertorius was murdered by Perpena who took over his forces. The war was brought to an end when Pompey executed Perpena in 71. Pompey was given credit for the victory. Pompey then gained a favourable reputation because of his fair treatment to Sertorius’ Spanish allies and by granting Roman citizenship to those who supported him. Bradley also states that his favourable reputation was also due to his “Diplomatic and organisational skill.” In this case Pompey proved himself to be more than just a great commander, he was also an excellent organiser and administrator.

Pompey’s next major achievement occurred in 73 in reaction to a serious uprising of gladiators and slaves in Italy. It was lead by the Thracian gladiator Spartacus from 73-71. Plutarch describes the situation as having “become dangerous enough to inspire real fear…[and it was] considered a major war and most difficult one to fight.” After both consuls were defeated a new commander was sought to take control of the government forces. Crassus who was the praetor of 73 was granted imperium and took supreme command of the war. At one time Crassus feared defeat so he wrote to the senate asking them to recall Pompey from Spain as reinforcements. However, Crassus regained control and in 3 engagements he defeated Spartacus’ divided forces and “made all the haste he could to finish the war before these generals [Pompey] arrived” (Plutarch). However, Pompey had arrived in 71 and was officially associated with Crassus in command. Pompey’s main contribution to the war occurred when he prevented 5000 fugitives from escaping to the north and in a letter to the senate he stated that “he himself had finished the war off utterly and entirely”(Plutarch). Pompey was then awarded his second triumph.

In 70 Pompey was elected joint consul with Crassus. Since Pompey was 7 years under the required age a decree was passed by the senate exempting him from the usual age and experience of subconsular offices that Sulla’s Lex Annalis required. During his consulship Pompey restored the powers of the tribunes to gain favourable support from the people. Also, this allowed him the future possibility of using a tribute to promote his career. During the joint consulship two important pieces of legislation were passed. Firstly, the tribunes had their legislative powers and the right to veto restored. Also, censorship was revived filling the senate with people eager to show Pompey their appreciation. Pompey used his short time as consul strongly to his advantage by setting up his future by gaining the support of the people, tribunes and senate. Following his consulship Pompey temporarily retired leaving him available for future commands.

By 67 the growing problem of piracy seriously threatened Rome, disrupting the corn trade and therefore the people were facing famine. Because of the situation the tribune Gabinius proposed an extraordinary command be created to rid the seas of pirates. Gabinius’ law named the Lex Gabinia proposed a commander be given 3 years Imperium to operate anywhere in the Mediterranean and in all Roman provinces upto 50 miles inland with full access to the treasury. Pompey was chosen and granted the many associated powers. Within forty days Pompey had cleared the pirates from the entire western half of the Mediterranean Sea. At Cilicia they were defeated at sae and their stronghold was besieged. The pirates surrendered in less than 3 months and this marked the end of the war. Pompey’s commands under the Lex Gabinia marked his first sole success as a commander of a large force over such great distances in such an extraordinarily short time.

Another force against Rome began to rebuild itself during Rome’s preoccupation with Sertorius, Spartacus and the pirates. This force was that of Mithridates. While Pompey was in Cilicia the Lex Manilia giving Pompey command of Mithridates and control of Cilicia, Bithynia and Pontus was passed. Cicero supported the bill hoping to attract votes from Pompey’s supporters and also used the occasion to compliment the choice of Pompey, “[Pompey is] a commander whose remarkable military knowledge is only equalled by his extraordinary personal gifts, outstanding prestige and pre-eminent good fortune.” So with the command against Mithridates Pompey proceeded to the East.

Although Pompey was a competent soldier his military achievements in the east were based on the Lucullus’ hard campaigning that had occurred over the previous 6 years. So even though Pompey commanded, the settlements in the east was another time where his ability as an organiser, administrator and diplomat were exemplified. The results to this were how Pompey added regions to the Roman provinces and formed the province of Syria. Pompey also set up cities in a Hellenistic style to make Roman administration and taxation easier while also setting up client states. The overall benefits of Pompey’s eastern settlements was an increase in the Roman treasurey, increase in tributes, peace for the east and an increase in Pompey’s overseas clientele.

As can be seen, Pompey’s early career was outstanding and truly extraordinary specially after the cursus honorum reforms of Sulla. Pompey was an outstanding soldier, administrator, organiser and a general who through his extraodridinary career created precedant and innovation one after the other. He also demonstrated genius political forethought in his time as consul. Cicero in a speech to the senate said this concerning Pompey, “If you count up ever single departure from precedent since the very beginning of Roman history, they add up to a smaller total than those which have been lavished on the career of a single man.”
 
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xeuyrawp

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Re: Free Rome/caesar Notes For Hsc

Wow, thanks heaps mate. :)
 

sebtacular

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TY mate Caesar was always one of my lower ranking topics in Ancient, however thanks to your notes i've not got a stronger grasp on the topic!
 

ari89

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No probs...Ancient History was one of the few subjects I enjoyed
And it was easier than other subjects to study/make notes on
 
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hey was wondering if you could help with

Political crises: role of senate and use of army for political purposes.

thanks =]
 

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