Raw mark is the mark that is attained after the exam has been marked; eg. you do say a 3 unit maths exam, and you get 63/84 - that is your raw mark. Now, this mark is not released to you. First the board of studies aligns the raw mark according to standards, so since 3 unit maths aligns very well, 63/84 aligns to ~92/100 (or 46/50). That is your aligned exam mark. Next, the BOS moderates and aligns your assessment marks, and then averages them with your aligned exam marks - eg. if your moderated/aligned assessment mark was say 88/100 (or 44/50) and aligned exam is 92/100, they do (92+88)/2 = 90 <-- THAT is your HSC mark.
Scaled marks work differently - the UAC takes your RAW exam marks and moderated assessment marks (before aligning), and scale them based on the scaled mean (average) of how the whole state performs - the higher the scaled mean, the better the subject scales; eg. in 2010, 3 unit maths had a scaled mean of 39.8/50 (or 79.6/100), this means it scales extremely well. It is usually the case that the scaled marks are much lower than your raw marks. Another example is Standard English; in 2010, it had a scaled mean of 17.3/50 (34.6/100), this means it scales very poorly, and hence can scale you down pretty badly if you don't perform that well in it. Remember, aligned marks have NOTHING to do with scaling - they are not used in the calculation of your ATAR.