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Essential Review for Fall of Rome (1 Viewer)

AsyLum

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* Make sure you have a good understanding not only of the major personalities within this period, thier contributions and context to which they contributed or hindered to the fall of the roman republic, but also be well versed with various sources. Some of the recommended texts are :

(each of these texts should be available at your local library but i have included the price for those who might want to buy a copy for future reference)

- Plutarch - Fall of the Roman Republic ( Penguin ) ~$16

This book has Plutarch's Lives of: Gaius Marius, Sulla, Crassus, Pompey, Caesar, and Cicero; and is invaluable in gaining an ancient source and understanding for their respective roles. Each holds an integral part to the disintergration and is well worth the read if you havent already.

- Plutarch - Makers of Rome ( Penguin ) ~$15

This book contains 9 lives with notable ones including: Marcellus, Cato the elder, the Gracchi, Sertorius, Brutus and Mark Antony. Geared towards the initial degradation from the destruction of Carthage and Corinth in 146BC as the earmark point of the downhil descent towards the Empire.

- Appian - The Civil Wars ( Penguin ) ~$20

Contains a continuous narrative of the events from 133BC from Tiberius Gracchus, to 70 BC with the murder of Julius Caesar. Everything within those two events is earmarked within this book, in good detail. From the Cataline conspiracy, to the rise and fall of the 1st Triumvirate, Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon and finally the formation of the 2nd 'Triumvirate.'

- H. H. Scullard - From The Gracchi To Nero ~$45

The definitive modern source/guide to the ancient undertakings of Rome. As it states in the title, the book spans from the middle of the turmoil within Republican Rome and right through to the Empirical Rome to Nero's reign. A good help in understanding subtleties and modern historians perspectives and opinions upon the ancient texts and sources.

* Dates within this period are of utmost importance, as well as the family connections and names within. Make sure you remember the important ones accordingly.

* Be well read, i cannot stress that out enough. Ancient History is about 85% research and 15% essay and compiling your own thoughts upon the topic. This is in preparation for the vast amount of sources available to you, specifically upon Rome. Do not try and limit yourself to a lax attitude of using websites, but rather go to your library and find the books, they hold the closest translations to the original sources without having to learn ancient greek or latin.

* If you are studying on one of the personalities, try and find more than one ancient source upon him/her and one modern commentary. This gives you the bare minimum needed to truly critically analyse not only the personality, but the sources you have used.



Now to a mini timeline of events which should help you on your way. By no means is this a complete or total summary but rather as an indicator of some of the important events.


146 BC - The Destruction of Carthage by Scipio Aemilianus and of Corinth by L. Mummius. Of note is the career of Scipio Aemilianus who will set a benchmark for the rules and guidelines placed upon the political and military life of Romans to be broken and thrown by the wayside. Also of note, the destruction of the two other opposing forces of Rome illustrates the preceding triumvirates and struggle of power between three, of which will be common later on. As well as the moral decline of the society with the blanket of fear and oppression, and ultimately the beginnning of the lax military, starts upon here.

* The Three Roman rules : of
- Annuality - in which the consuls change every year
- Collegiality - in which there is never one person in charge unless under extreme circumstances
- Public Sovereignty - that those people in power are put there by the people

* The introduction of the Secret Ballot into Rome

133 BC - The political crisis, and the downfall of the first Triumvirate. Tiberius Gracchus unveils the power of the Tribune of the Plebians, by voting out another Tribune who opposes the Public Land bill. The first Triumvirate was elected to assign the land to the people. Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius, Appius Claudius Pulcha. Tiberius is murdered brutally by the senate without trial. A major event in a society ruled by laws.

129 BC - As he is about to make a speech to the Senate against the proposed Land Bill of Gaius Gracchus, Scipio Aemilianus is 'mysteriously' found dead, assumed assassinated.

125 BC - M. Fulvius Flaccus becomes a consul, introduces laws which gives Italian allies Roman Citizenship, but it falls through due to a military emergency against the Gauls.

123 BC - 10 years after the first Triumvirate, Gaius Gracchus assumes the tribuneship and continues his brothers plans. He also stands for the tribuneship a second time, and unlike his brother is succesful.

122 BC - Gaius and M. Fulvius Flaccus become tribunes.

121 BC - Gaius tries for a third time but is defeated, and the city descends into social conflict. The consul of 121 BC orders a Senatus Consultum Ultimum, basically meaning martial law. This also means that Romans lose all rights and therefore the assassination/murder of those 'against the State' is permitted. Gaius and Flaccus are killed along with 3,000 others and it is also the first time that a price is placed upon the head of Roman Citizens.

*A string of military defeats and failures follows illustrating the lax attitude of this new breed of Romans.

*The importance of the LATIFUNDIA and the AGER PUBLICUS

*Slave revolts and other social unrest in Rome and its provinces.

*Fear of Gaullic Tribes looming.

107 BC - The first consulship of Marius, and definitely not his last. He reforms the military into a professional fighting machine and becomes a 'super-patron' in that the military is loyal to him, and only him. He is given 5 subsequent consulships in a row, and more importantly starts the actions needed to march a Roman army into Rome.

100 BC - A second SCU is passed by the Senate.

91 - 88 BC The Italian war in which brothers would line up against each other. The first foot in the grave in which Civil war was truly experienced.

88 BC - Sulla marches his army on Rome. Major significance. Setting a precedent upon those later.

87 - 86 BC - Marius marches on Rome with Cinna. They are both made pro-consuls and within his 7th consulship Marius dies.

*Cinnae Dominatio - Cinna is made consul 87-84 BC

81 BC - Sulla is voted in as a political dictator as well as a military one. Reforms the constitution to try and 'repair' the old ways. DICTATOR LEGIBUS SCRIBENDIS ET REPUBLICAE CONSTITUENDE (Dictator, Writer of Laws and Reconstructor of Republics) Augmentation of the Senate :

- 300 new nominees
- 20 quaestors
- 8 praetors
- Senatorial careers highly governed and the tribuneship suppressed of its previous power.

> Entry to offices restricted by age:
- quaestor - 30
- praetor - 40
- consul - 43
* a biennium- praetor/consul - 2 year non office before they can take upon another office
* 10 year interval for consulships.

- Courts returned from the equites to the Senate Tribunes
- Veto of the tribunes limited
- Their right to legislate removed
- Political dead end with tribunes unable to take any higher office.
- Corn distribution laws abolished.

79 BC - Sulla mysteriously resigns from the dictatorship. He dies a year later.

78 BC - SCU (3rd) against M. Aemilius Lepidus

77 BC - Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus gathering his own army, without any prior experience in politics or holding an office nor military experience arrives at Spain.

70 BC - Crassus and Pompey become consuls for the first time.
 
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Vuki

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This is very helpful, but one thing. The Fall of the Roman Republic in the HSC is from 78-28BC. Your timeline seems to end pretty early. This isn't a criticism just curious, maybe you were just trying to provide background for further study? I haven't looked at the zip yet which probably makes this comment useless, but just checking.
 

AsyLum

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The second 'triumvirate' is within the Life of Pompey, and should take you through the notions of 78-28 BC
 

AsyLum

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It depends upon which historian you use.

The 2nd official triumvirate was after pompey. But the alliance within has been referred to as the '2nd unofficial triumvirate' by a few historians.

I just wanted to clear that up thanks silvermoon for pointing that out.

/edit/

Yes a lot of historians have called this the 1st triumvirate, but it was never official, and rather the first actual official triumvirate was the board of three of tiberius gracchus.
 
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Sgt_Johnym

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lol thanx for this as im doing an essay on the decline and fall of rome for my history ext. essay :D
 

BOSS"06"

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hey thanx champ ur a major help, wish there was more ppl like u in the world
 

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