- May 1, 2008
Hey guys. just wondering if you have any notes or info on this speech.
thats good =)simm!. said:heyyy im doing this speech atm and it is reallllyyy crap..but here is the info i have..
Plans for an Australian unknown soldier were first put forward in the 1920s but it was not until 1993 that an unknown Australian was at last brought home. To mark the 75th anniversary of the end of the First World War, the body of an unknown Australian soldier was recovered from Adelaide Cemetery near Villers-Bretonneaux in France and transported to Australia . After lying in state in King's Hall in Parliament House, he was interred in the Hall of Memory at the Memorial on 11 November 1993. The Unknown Australian Soldier was buried in a Tasmanian blackwood coffin with a slouch hat and a sprig of wattle, and soil from the Pozières battlefield was scattered in his tomb.
The Unknown Australian Soldier represents all Australians who have been killed in war.
In 1993 the Unknown Australian Soldier was brought home from the Adelaide Cemetery near Villers-Bretonneaux in France.
The Unknown Australian Soldier laid in state at King’s Hall in Parliament house and was then interred in the Hall of Memory at the Australian War Memorial on 11 Nov 1993. He was buried in a Tasmanian Blackwood coffin with a slouch hat and a sprig of wattle, and soil from the Pozieres battlefield was scattered in the Tomb
The Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier
We do not know this Australian’s name and we never will. We do not know his rank or battalion. We do not know where he was born, nor precisely how he died ... We will never know who this Australian was ... he was one of the 45,000 Australians who died on the Western Front ... one of the 60,000 Australians who died on foreign soil. One of the 100,000 Australians who died in wars this century. He is all of them. And he is one of us.
The powerful words of the Eulogy delivered by then Prime Minister Paul Keating on 11 November 1993 at the entombing of the Unknown Australian Soldier.
The story began earlier that month when the remains of an Australian soldier who died in the First World War were exhumed from a military cemetery in France. He was one of the 23,000 Australians killed in the war to have no known grave. Except for their nationality, they could not be identified, and were buried beneath headstones bearing the words ‘An Australian soldier of the Great War, known unto God’.
Placed in a simple Tasmanian blackwood coffin, the remains lay in state at Villers-Bretonneux in France and at Menin Gate at Ypres in Belgium.
They were then returned to Australia, spending another three days lying in state at Old Parliament House in Canberra. Finally, on 11 November 1993 - the 75th anniversary of the Armistice which ended fighting on the Western front - the remains of the Unknown Australian Soldier were interred in the Hall of Memory at the Australian War Memorial.
The tomb is located in the centre of the imposing structure, set almost flush with the floor, surrounded by a sloping marble border, and topped with a red marble cover. It bears the simple inscription ‘An Unknown Australian Soldier Killed in the War of 1914-1918’.
In the words of Paul Keating in his Eulogy, ‘The Unknown Soldier honours the memory of all those men and women who laid down their lives for Australia. His tomb is a reminder of what we have lost in war and what we have gained’.
The Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier at the Australian War Memorial is a focus for contemplation and for remembering the 100,000 Australians who died in war, and whose names appear on the nearby Roll of Honour.
The Unknown Australian Soldier
MAXINE McKEW: The Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier at the War Memorial in Canberra has been described by the Governor-General, Sir William Deane, as the "true heart of our nation."
And tomorrow night, to mark the completion of a two-year restoration of that soldier's final resting place, a specially commissioned piece of music will be performed.
Entitled 'They Are Here' and composed by Victorian high school teacher Anthony Briggs, the piece will feature not only a choir but some prime ministerial words as you've never heard them before.
Geoff Hutchison reports.
GEOFF HUTCHISON: On Remembrance Day 1993, an unknown soldier was laid to rest in a tomb inside the Hall of Memory at the Australian War Memorial.
One of 18,000 anonymous dead from the Western Front battles of the First World War, this symbol of forgotten sacrifice was brought to life in a eulogy delivered by prime minister Paul Keating.
PAUL KEATING, FORMER PRIME MINISTER, NOVEMBER 11, 1993: We did not know who loved him, or whom he loved.
If he had children, we do not know who they are.
His family is lost to us, as he was lost to them.
We will never know who this Australian was.
GEOFF HUTCHISON: Seven years on in an old miner's cottage in Maldon, Victoria, high school music teacher and composer Anthony Briggs is transforming that Keating eulogy into a score for choir and brass.
For on Anzac Day night, the Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier will resonate with a special tribute.
ANTHONY BRIGGS, COMPOSER: The War Memorial's never had any music written for it before and I guess the overriding thing about having this piece performed on that day in that place is that it's actually being performed in the Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier.
Even though the speech is lyrical and very memorable, of course, you can't set every word.
You don't want to tamper too much with it and you want to be respectful of not just the words, but of the meaning of the words, what the purpose of the whole thing is for.
Perhaps these might even be quasi-staccato, you know.
(Hums notes) GEOFF HUTCHISON: It's final dress rehearsal today and Anthony, with guts churning, is feeling his responsibility keenly.
His piece is entitled 'They are Here' and all around him that is clearly evident.
They are here, remembered in warm bronze and celebrated with poppies.
The Keating eulogy stands outside the Hall of Memory and inside, the final resting place of the unknown soldier has undergone extensive restoration.
Thousands of the over six million tesserae tiles have been replaced and this vast, deep space will soon be filled with soaring voices.
But in this space, marrying voice and brass is proving difficult.
RICHARD McINTYRE, ORIANA CHORALE: I think the reverberation time would be at least 10 seconds, maybe up to 15 which, of course, is quite extraordinary.
It produces all sorts of odd gremlins in terms of balance, in terms of phase, and in terms of the choir actually being able to hear themselves.
GEOFF HUTCHISON: But they do manage to hear themselves and the words they sing are both simple and profound.
"He is all of them and he is one of us."
Anthony Briggs is not famous, only fortunate.
As a boy he sang in the choir at St Patrick's in Melbourne, where he learnt to love singing in resonant spaces.
And by teaching himself how to play the piano, he learnt to trust his ear and the music in his head.
Tomorrow night, he'll perform for an unknown Australian hero.
ANTHONY BRIGGS: If I'm the first person to introduce some music on his behalf and in memory of all people who have died, then that's like juggling many things and I don't know what it's going to be like, but as a composer I think I've put it to bed.
I have done the deed and I've done my duty.
MAXINE McKEW: And that performance can be heard on ABC Classic FM tomorrow night from 8:00.
Transcripts on this website are created by an independent transcription service. The ABC does not warrant the accuracy of the transcripts.
The Unknown Australian Soldier.
My time switch story enables Laura and her brother Brent to travel back in time with the Unknown Australian Soldier after the reburial ceremony in Canberra to visit the battlefields of Gallipoli and France. Rather than a book of memories the children are confronted with real events.
The then Prime Minister Paul Keating's eulogy for the reburial of the Unknown Australian Soldier in Canberra on 11th November 1993 inspired me to carefully research significant aspects of the war to write this story. Canberra based artist Anne Langridge submitted a unique idea for illustrations by overlaying water colour paintings on the original black and white photographs from the Australian War Memorial archives
The Unknown Australian Soldier.
by K. S. Inglis
Some time after the armistice of 11 November 1918, bits of a body identifiable as Australian by its equipment (boots, badge, shreds of uniform) were put into a grave near Villers-Bretonneux, in one of the many cemeteries created by the Imperial War Graves Commission, with a headstone inscribed AN AUSTRALIAN SOLDIER OF THE GREAT WAR KNOWN TO GOD. This man's name was among those of 11,000 Australians listed on the Australian National Memorial to the Missing dedicated by King George V at Villers-Bretonneux in 1938, and it was also among those of the 60,000 Australian dead from the first world war inscribed in the cloisters of the Australian War Memorial, Canberra, in 1963. In November 1993 whatever remained of the man's body was dug up, sealed into a Tasmanian blackwood coffin, flown by Qantas to Sydney and by the RAAF to Canberra, exhibited in the King's Hall of the old Parliament House (old, but not built until nearly ten years after his death), drawn on a gun-carriage across the King's Avenue bridge and up Anzac Parade in a ceremony modelled on the funeral of a field marshal, eulogised by the prime minister, saluted by the governor-general, and carried through the cloisters to be buried at the centre of the Australian War Memorial's Hall of Memory. Seventy-five years to the day after the guns of the first world war went silent, a firing party on the parapet signalled that the coffin was being lowered into the Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier.
Why? Why, seventy-five years on, and seventy-three years since another unknown soldier from this man's war had been interred in Westminster Abbey? The beginning of an answer is that for nearly seventy of those years people who proposed the return of an unknown Australian soldier were told that the unity of the British empire made the enterprise impossible. It was a necessary condition for the act of repatriation that Australia...
and also this essay thing
November 11th, celebrated as Armistice Day by the allied countries that fought in the First World War, 1914-1918, was appropriately chosen for the entombment of the Unknown Soldier in a shrine at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra in l993.
In view of the enormous slaughter caused in that conflict, many countries decided to inter one, anonymous, casualty to act as a memorial for the many thousands who had unmarked graves, or none at all.
When the speech was delivered, the Hon. P.J. Keating had been Prime Minister of Australia for almost two years. It can be assumed that his speechwriter, Don Watson, author of an account of Keating's years as Prime Minister, Recollections of a Bleeding Heart (2002, Knopf), made some contribution to the speech. But Watson, in talks and interviews, maintains that once a speech is delivered, it is the property of the speechmaker, giving his views, his attitudes, and his preferred language and intonation. A political speech must in any case embody the beliefs of the person giving it. In this case, Keating's keen interest in history can be clearly seen, as well as his concern for Australian identity.
It is Watson's view that Keating's language benefited from the fact that, having to leave school at fifteen, he had made no formal study of economics or law:
[his language] served as the raw instrument of his intelligence, a shillelagh or a paint brush as circumstances demanded. With it he could sell an idea better than anybody else in the government. He painted word pictures, created images and moods at a stroke. He could turn ideas into icons, make phrases that stuck... when he was on a roll with it he could remind you of what language can be and what it can do.
Recollections of a Bleeding Heart, p 50.
Later in the same book, Watson described his own challenge as speechwriter:
How to take in words that would move people - as sometimes they visibly did? How to describe complex, subtle, near-invisible meanings in words that could be understood on first hearing them? How to interpret the country without offending other interpretations? How to avoid cliché, pedantry, sentimentality and yet never venture too far from the familiar? How to advance the argument, pull the audience beyond what they knew to what they didn't know?
Recollections of a Bleeding Heart, p 252.
Comparison with Lincoln: 'Government of the people, by the people, for the people'
The speech set for study that most closely compares with Keating's Funeral Service of the Unknown Soldier speech is that of Lincoln at Gettysburg. They are responses to similar occasions: commemorating the war dead. Lincoln's has the greater immediacy, because the Civil War was still ongoing when he delivered it: more young men might well be killed the next day.
Some points of comparison:
• Both are relatively brief: Lincoln's just ten sentences, some brief, some elaborately extended with clauses linked with semi-colons. Keating's took just over six minutes to deliver.
• Both are very inclusive of their audiences: the pronoun "we" recurs frequently. Keating declares: "And he is one of us".
• Each speech uses the sacrifice of the war dead to illuminate a larger goal: freedom and democracy for Lincoln, faith in Australian identity, its democratic mateship and love of peace, for Keating.
• Each includes many short declarative sentences. These are easy for a speaker to deliver. Longer sentences are linked so as to make them easy to grasp by the audience.
• Each uses many of the rhetorical patterns that orators at public occasions have used for centuries.
hope some of it helps.