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What happens during translation in DNA replication (1 Viewer)

BlueGas

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I know what happens during Transcription but I have trouble understanding Translation.
 

Flop21

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I'll explain them both (just because it makes more sense when explained with the process before).

Transcription:

1. DNA unzips and enzymes match RNA nucleotides to the unzipped nitrogen bases, forming an mRNA strand.

2. mRNA detaches and leaves nucleus into the cytoplasm where ribosome are located.

Translation:

1. A ribosome attaches to the mRNA strand.

2. tRNA - carrying amino acids match with their matching codons (made up of 3 bases) and release the amino acid.

4. Amino acids are joined by a peptide bond.

5. A chain of amino acids is formed which become a protein when released from the ribosome.
 

BlueGas

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I'll explain them both (just because it makes more sense when explained with the process before).

Transcription:

1. DNA unzips and enzymes match RNA nucleotides to the unzipped nitrogen bases, forming an mRNA strand.

2. mRNA detaches and leaves nucleus into the cytoplasm where ribosome are located.

Translation:

1. A ribosome attaches to the mRNA strand.

2. tRNA - carrying amino acids match with their matching codons (made up of 3 bases) and release the amino acid.

4. Amino acids are joined by a peptide bond.

5. A chain of amino acids is formed which become a protein when released from the ribosome.
That's the part I don't get, why is the amino acid released?
 

Flop21

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That's the part I don't get, why is the amino acid released?
Because that is their biological job, I suppose there are chemical reactions occurring that make the amino acid 'release'.



tRNA aka "Transfer RNA" have an amino acid on them, amino acids are the monomers of proteins (the building block). The tRNAs are looking for their matching bases on the mRNA. When they match up, they will drop off the amino acid they are carrying.

The amino acids form a polypeptide chain and then that will form a protein. And tadah, we have our protein (hence why this whole process is called production of polypeptides/proteins).

From what I've gathered, the mRNA is like a recipe or set of instructions, and the tRNA carry the ingredients (by putting them in the right order in the polypeptide chain).


Does this make sense (anyone feel free to correct me)? I strongly advise looking at some videos on this process, because this is probably one of the hardest processes in HSC biology and videos make it easier (to visualise what's happening).
 

sinophile

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That's the part I don't get, why is the amino acid released?
Many of the cell's molecules are recycled. You want to release the tRNA so it can be freed up to work on synthesising other proteins. Also if the tRNA remained attached to the amino acid, the protein which that amino acid will eventually end up in would not be able to fold properly so it wouldn't be able to do its job.
 

BlueGas

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Many of the cell's molecules are recycled. You want to release the tRNA so it can be freed up to work on synthesising other proteins. Also if the tRNA remained attached to the amino acid, the protein which that amino acid will eventually end up in would not be able to fold properly so it wouldn't be able to do its job.
Maybe abit earlier would have helped.
 

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